Argument from Analogy

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The “argument from analogy” is an argument which compares two ratios, that is to say four terms, in a crossed reasoning, of the type ”if a is to b what c is to d”. It is therefore a matter of … Read More

Problem of other minds – Solipsism

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Solipsism (from the Latin solus, alone, and ipse, oneself) is a general “attitude” that can be theorized in a philosophical and metaphysical form, according to which there would be for the thinking subject no other reality acquired with certainty than … Read More

Direct realism and indirect realism

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In philosophy of perception, as well as in theory of knowledge, direct realism and indirect realism are two distinct theories which have in common to assume the existence of a world independent of us, of which we can know thanks … Read More

Naturalism and science, philosophy of mind and ethics

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Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More

Functionalism

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In philosophy of mind, functionalism is a theory which, for methodological reasons, conceives of the mind as an information processing system and compares thought to a computation (Hobbes conceived the reason this way). Resulting from research in artificial intelligence, functionalism … Read More

Physicalism

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Physicalism, a term coined by Rudolf Carnap, is the thesis, or doctrine, that all knowledge is reducible, at least theoretically, to statements of physics. The human and social sciences, just like the natural sciences, which each have their specific vocabulary … Read More

Hallucination

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(My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations.) A hallucination is defined, in psychiatry, as a sensory perception without the presence of a detectable stimulus: for example … Read More

Mind–body dualism

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(Illustration of dualism by René Descartes. Sensory inputs are transmitted by the sensory organs to the pineal gland in the brain, then to the immaterial mind.) In philosophy, dualism is a strict view stating that the universe is made up … Read More

Philosophical zombie

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In the contemporary vocabulary of the philosophy of mind, by zombie (philosophical zombie or p-zombie) is meant a being physically and externally indistinguishable from a conscious being, by his behavior as by his physical constitution, but who, however, has no … Read More

Psychology of the film Solaris directed by Andrei Tarkovsky

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Tarkovski’s film is a drama of pain and partial recovery centered on the psychology of the Solaris station crew. Tarkovski wanted to address this way the deeply emotional and intellectual science-fantastic genre, considered by him to be superficial. The film … Read More

Non-Cartesian dualism

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 (Different approaches toward resolving the mind–body problem) Malebranche and occasionalism The action of the body on the mind and of the mind on the body is impossible; consequently, it is God who acts alone, conforming the will of the mind … Read More

Mind–body problem – Dualism – Descartes

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 (Is there a spirit in the machine?) The mind-body problem raises the question of the relationship between the human body, the brain in particular, and the mind. Although this problem has existed almost since the beginning of philosophy (see Plato), … Read More

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