Extension of the animal-machine concept to humans and in biology

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La Mettrie extends the Cartesian conception of animal-machines through the affirmation of a “man-machine” (1748). Nevertheless, such an extension of the mechanical model of comprehension, as effected by La Mettrie, constitutes a profoundly anti-Cartesian gesture: in this way, he challenges … Read More

Solids

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The solid state is a state of matter characterized by the absence of freedom between molecules or ions (metals for example). The macroscopic criteria of matter in the solid state are: the solid has its own form; the solid has … Read More

Newton’s second law

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Newton’s second law (the fundamental principle of dynamics, or the fundamental relation of dynamics) designates a law of physics relating the mass of an object, and the acceleration it receives if forces are applied to it. We can also see … Read More

Research and innovation and the COVID-19 pandemic

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The COVID-19 crisis is unprecedented. It has disrupted our lives, economy and society and the world has been struggling to contain the pandemic. While research and innovation (R&I) are at the core of the response to the pandemic itself in the areas … Read More

Criticism of scientism

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Philosophical criticism The philosopher Louis Jugnet (1913-1973) summarized the philosophical criticism of scientism in three paragraphs: “Scientism is […] the imperialism of Laboratory Science over all areas of human thought and consciousness. It is an attitude that reigned over almost … Read More

Science ethics

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(Hiroshima) The ethics of science is concerned with the ethical aspects of scientific research. This relates both to ethical standards within the sciences and to the social impact of the research process. The research ethics deals with the ethical principles of research and the tension between research … Read More

Thermal transfer

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A thermal transfer, more commonly called heat, is, along with work, one of the modes of internal energy exchange between two systems: it is a transfer of thermal energy that takes place outside thermodynamic equilibrium. There are three types of … Read More

Cosmology

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(Cosmology of Sumerian civilization.) Cosmology is the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin, nature, structure and evolution of the Universe. History of scientific cosmologies The scientific cosmology established at any given time depends directly on what we know about … Read More

Virus Ontology: Thing, Being, Process, or Information?

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The study of viruses raises pressing conceptual and philosophical questions about their nature, their classification, (O’Malley 2014, 45–94) (Mayr 1953) and their place within the biological world. A major set of problems concerns the individuality and diachronic identity of a … Read More

What came first: the virus or the cell?

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Viruses reproduce only inside the living cells of organisms, (Wu 2020) being known so far more than 6,000 species of viruses. (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 2020) When it infects a cell, the viruses force it to rapidly … Read More

Unsolved problems in physics, in theory and observations

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This is a list of some of the great unsolved problems in physics. During the long-term process of evolving theories according to the scientific method, there is an intermediary phase between two periods of stability where questions remain unanswered and … Read More

Atomic nucleus

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(Atomic nucleus of helium.) The atomic nucleus refers to the region located in the center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons (nucleons). The size of the nucleus (of the order of a femtometer, ie 10-15 meters) is … Read More

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