Arguments against speciesism

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Anti-speciesism For supporters of antispeciesism (philosophical and political movement opposed to speciesism), speciesism is a reprehensible ideology, and an “animal liberation movement” is necessary to put an end to the exploitation of animals. For antispeciesists, “speciesism can be defined as … Read More

Types of consequentialism

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Utilitarianism (John Stuart Mill) Utilitarianism is, historically, the main consequentialist moral theory. He takes as right the action which generates the most happiness for all the agents, happiness being defined as the maximization of pleasures and the minimization of pains. … Read More

What does ‘God’ mean? Is God Knowable?

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What does ‘God’ mean? To this question, there is a great plurality of philosophical, sociological, or ideological opinions about religion. The religions have various interpretations on the part of the philosophers and the “founding” theorists of the various human sciences. … Read More

The concepts of existentialism

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The building of the essence Atheistic existentialism declares that there is a being which cannot be defined before its existence, and that this being is precisely the human being, the Dasein (Da = there and sein = being, this means … Read More

The concepts of Stoicism

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Wisdom and philosophy Stoic philosophy is a coherent whole: it is a philosophy of totality which aims to be consciously systematic, which is one of the characteristic traits of ancient systems of thought. This doctrine proceeds to divisions of the … Read More

Idealism in philosophy

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In philosophy, idealism is the position that all reality boils down to determinations of the mind, whether these are “ideas”, mental representations or more subjective determinations such as “sensory experiences” or the feelings. Theoretical position on the nature of the … Read More

Major types of logic

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Syllogistic logic Organon is Aristotle’s principal work of logic, including the Prior Analytics; it constitutes the first explicit work of formal logic, with in particular the introduction of syllogistics. The works of Aristotle are considered in Europe and the Middle … Read More

Specific issues of the philosophy of mind

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Philosophy of mind is a branch of analytic philosophy that seeks to study the nature of mind, as well as its relationship to the physical world. The mind-body problem understood in the broad sense, the problem of the relation of … Read More

Science and epistemology

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Epistemology The term “epistemology” replaced that of philosophy of science at the beginning of the 20th century. It is a neologism constructed by James Frederick Ferrier, in his work Institutes of metaphysics (1854). The word is composed on the Greek … Read More

Political art and practice

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The modalities of access to power are, like the organization of power, determined by the institutions and are part of the political system. However, they also go beyond the question of the organization of power for the following reasons: accession … Read More

Political power – Political regimes

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Political regimes according to legitimacy In order to exercise itself without encountering opposition, political power has always endeavored to justify its legitimacy. This can be based on: tradition and heredity, case of traditional regimes, monarchies and aristocratic systems; divine will, … Read More

Political ideologies

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The first mention of the term ideology dates back to 1801, when Antoine Destutt de Tracy published Elements of Ideology. However, the meaning that Tracy applied to this neologism had nothing political about it: it was about a science of … Read More

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