Marxism

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Marxism is a current of political, sociological and economic thought founded on the ideas of Karl Marx (and to a lesser extent of Friedrich Engels) and his followers. Politically, Marxism is based on participation in the real movement of the … Read More

Neo-Confucianism

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Neo-Confucianism is a Far Eastern philosophical current that took off under the Chinese Song dynasty and became the official version of Confucianism from the 14th century until the very beginning of the 20th century, despite competition from the Hanxian current … Read More

Monism

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Monism is the philosophical position which affirms the indivisible unity of being. In its modern expression, it supports the uniqueness of the substance that makes up the universe. The fundamental unity of the cosmos or the universe makes matter and … Read More

Modal logic

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In mathematical logic, modal logic is a type of formal logic that extends propositional logic, first-order logic, or higher-order logic with modalities. A specific modality of the qualities of truth. For example, a proposition like “it’s raining” can be preceded … Read More

Authenticity in art

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Authenticity in art means a genuine, unadulterated art. Authentication is the separation of the genuine from the false, the separation of the unadulterated from the forged. Authenticity in art is close to the concepts of “real,” “originality”. Usually, the meaning of authenticity remains unclear unless it is known … Read More

Problem of other minds – Solipsism

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Solipsism (from the Latin solus, alone, and ipse, oneself) is a general “attitude” that can be theorized in a philosophical and metaphysical form, according to which there would be for the thinking subject no other reality acquired with certainty than … Read More

Direct realism and indirect realism

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In philosophy of perception, as well as in theory of knowledge, direct realism and indirect realism are two distinct theories which have in common to assume the existence of a world independent of us, of which we can know thanks … Read More

Retributive justice

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Retributive justice or retributionism is a theory of justice – and more specifically a theory of punishment – that holds that proportional retribution is a morally acceptable response to the offense or crime, regardless of whether or not this measure … Read More

Animal welfare or animal rights?

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In the defense of the interests of animals, we can distinguish two great philosophies: that defending greater animal welfare, and that claiming rights for animals. These two points of view correspond to two more general ethical conceptions: deontologists base morality … Read More

Naturalism and science, philosophy of mind and ethics

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Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More

Free will

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Free will is the faculty that the human being would have to determine himself freely and by him alone, to act and to think, as opposed to determinism or fatalism, which affirms that the will would be determined in each … Read More

Logical positivism

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Logical empiricism (sometimes called logical empiricism, neo-positivism, or rational empiricism) is a philosophical school primarily exemplified by the Vienna Circle, founded by a group of Viennese scientists and philosophers in the 1920s. The Vienna Circle was above all a place … Read More

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