Phenomenology

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Phenomenology (from the Greek: φαινόμενον (phainómenon), “what appears”; and λόγος (lógos), “study”) is a current of thought of the twentieth century founded by Edmund Husserl with the aim of making philosophy a scientific discipline. It takes its name from its … Read More

Negative and positive freedom

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Negative freedom Negative freedom, or freedom ”from”, or freedom as an absence of impediment, indicates within the political terminology the possibility that someone has to act without anyone intervening to hinder him or even the decision to remain passive without … Read More

Criticisms of the concept of animal welfare

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In the old days, many people thought that animals couldn’t feel anything and therefore had no self-interest. Many Cartesians seem to have taken this view, although according to John Cottingham, Descartes himself did not defend such a point of view. … Read More

Criticisms of utilitarianism

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Criticisms of utilitarianism come from different authors, from various currents of anti-utilitarian thought as well as from various social movements such as environmental movements and alter-globalist movements. Indifference to inequality In its cardinal versions, total or average utilitarianism, utilitarianism does … Read More

Epicureanism

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Epicureanism is a current of Western philosophy whose main objective is the attainment of happiness by the satisfaction of only “natural and necessary” desires. It is a materialist and atomist doctrine which can be qualified either as reasoned hedonism or … Read More

Marxism

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Marxism is a current of political, sociological and economic thought founded on the ideas of Karl Marx (and to a lesser extent of Friedrich Engels) and his followers. Politically, Marxism is based on participation in the real movement of the … Read More

Neo-Confucianism

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Neo-Confucianism is a Far Eastern philosophical current that took off under the Chinese Song dynasty and became the official version of Confucianism from the 14th century until the very beginning of the 20th century, despite competition from the Hanxian current … Read More

Monism

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Monism is the philosophical position which affirms the indivisible unity of being. In its modern expression, it supports the uniqueness of the substance that makes up the universe. The fundamental unity of the cosmos or the universe makes matter and … Read More

Modal logic

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In mathematical logic, modal logic is a type of formal logic that extends propositional logic, first-order logic, or higher-order logic with modalities. A specific modality of the qualities of truth. For example, a proposition like “it’s raining” can be preceded … Read More

Authenticity in art

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Authenticity in art means a genuine, unadulterated art. Authentication is the separation of the genuine from the false, the separation of the unadulterated from the forged. Authenticity in art is close to the concepts of “real,” “originality”. Usually, the meaning of authenticity remains unclear unless it is known … Read More

Problem of other minds – Solipsism

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Solipsism (from the Latin solus, alone, and ipse, oneself) is a general “attitude” that can be theorized in a philosophical and metaphysical form, according to which there would be for the thinking subject no other reality acquired with certainty than … Read More

Direct realism and indirect realism

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In philosophy of perception, as well as in theory of knowledge, direct realism and indirect realism are two distinct theories which have in common to assume the existence of a world independent of us, of which we can know thanks … Read More

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