Retributive justice

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Retributive justice or retributionism is a theory of justice – and more specifically a theory of punishment – that holds that proportional retribution is a morally acceptable response to the offense or crime, regardless of whether or not this measure … Read More

Animal welfare or animal rights?

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In the defense of the interests of animals, we can distinguish two great philosophies: that defending greater animal welfare, and that claiming rights for animals. These two points of view correspond to two more general ethical conceptions: deontologists base morality … Read More

Naturalism and science, philosophy of mind and ethics

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Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More

Free will

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Free will is the faculty that the human being would have to determine himself freely and by him alone, to act and to think, as opposed to determinism or fatalism, which affirms that the will would be determined in each … Read More

Logical positivism

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Logical empiricism (sometimes called logical empiricism, neo-positivism, or rational empiricism) is a philosophical school primarily exemplified by the Vienna Circle, founded by a group of Viennese scientists and philosophers in the 1920s. The Vienna Circle was above all a place … Read More

Pythagoreanism

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The Pythagorean school founded by Pythagoras (580-495 BC) in Magna Graecia constitutes a brotherhood that is both scientific and religious: Pythagoreanism is indeed based on an initiation and offers its followers a way of ethics and food life, as well … Read More

Atomism

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Atomism is a philosophical current proposing a conception of a discontinuous universe, composed of matter and emptiness. According to atomists, the atoms that make up the universe are all of the same substance. They are indivisible and differ from each … Read More

Philosophy of logic

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The philosophy of logic is a part of the philosophy of science which is interested in the set of theoretical problems which traditionally come under logic, essentially comprising first of all the question of its essence, its history from its … Read More

Art criticism

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(Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max.) Art criticism is the value judgment expressed on works of art in the field of aesthetics, but also with regard to their relevance in a given social and political context. Art … Read More

Functionalism

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In philosophy of mind, functionalism is a theory which, for methodological reasons, conceives of the mind as an information processing system and compares thought to a computation (Hobbes conceived the reason this way). Resulting from research in artificial intelligence, functionalism … Read More

Social, Psychological, and Philosophical Reflections on Pandemics and Beyond

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Abraham Rudnick Introduction Societies are measured in part in relation to how they rise to the occasion of collective crises and learn from them. For example, both Taiwan and Canada (specifically Toronto) were similarly directly impacted by the Severe Acute Respiratory … Read More

Cogito, ergo sum

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Cogito, ergo sum is a Latin phrase meaning “I think, therefore I am”. Used by the philosopher and mathematician René Descartes in the Discourse on the Method (1637), the formula has a variant in his work in 1641, in the … Read More

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