Contemporary realism: Karl Popper, Saul Kripke, Hilary Putnam

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From the middle of the 19th century, a form of anti-realism imposed itself with the development of positivism (Comte, Mach, Duhem), then of neo-positivism and empiricism in the first half of the 20th century (Vienna Circle, A.J. Ayer, Ryle). These … Read More

Newton, Leibniz, Kant and Bergson on space and time

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This debate is particularly highlighted in the polemic which opposed at the beginning of the 18th century (from 1714 to 1716) Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in a famous epistolary exchange where Samuel Clarke made himself the lawyer of … Read More

Verbal behaviorism. Criticisms of behaviorism.

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Verbal behaviorism In 1957, Skinner published Verbal Behavior, in which he analyzed language as behavior. According to him, this obeys the same rules as other behaviors but differs in that it cannot be reinforced by the physical environment, but only … Read More

Popperian falsifiability – Falsifiabilism and critical rationalism

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Popperian falsifiability Karl Popper remarked that general relativity made it possible to make predictions which very well might not have been verified, whereas other theories found confirmation in everything. Moreover, Einstein himself said that there is no logical method to … Read More

Formation of the concept of civil disobedience

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From Antiquity to Modern Times A form of civil disobedience already existed in the myth of Antigone, who defies the laws of the city to give her brother a decent burial, and in Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, where women decide to refuse … Read More

Criticisms of ontological argument for the existence of God

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Gaunilon and Thomas Aquinas opposed, in the Middle Ages, the ontological argument developed by Saint Anselm: it is not because we imagine and design a fortunate island that it necessarily exists, Gaunilon objects in substance. Similarly, it could be objected … Read More

Historicity of reason – Contemporary critique of modern rationalism

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Historicity of reason With the Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel put forward the historicity of a reason which develops its forms through the history of the world. The Hegelian discovery is the historical character of reason, and this awareness of historicity … Read More

Modern period of realism: the question of scientific realism

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Cartesian mechanism (Mechanism of vision after a drawing by René Descartes. For Descartes, without the proof of the existence of God, we would have no guarantee of the reality of what we perceive confusedly by our senses.) The mechanism defended … Read More

Different ontologies

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The Age of “Worldviews” In the 1920s and 1930s a theme dominated, in Germany as in France, orchestrated by Karl Jaspers Psychologie der Weltanschuungen, the intellectual scene: that of the “Vision of the world” or Weltanschauung which claimed “to determine … Read More

Ontology as a question addressed to Being as such

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(Heidegger in 1960. ) The Heideggerian approach aims to free ontology from any metaphysical shackles, in a phenomenological approach by upholding the question of the meaning of being drawn over the course of human existence, at the source of time. … Read More

Fake detection in art

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The art experts To determine, if necessary, the authenticity of a work, it is recommended to refer to a qualified expert. The latter can be an art historian specializing in a given period, an auctioneer, a gallery owner or an … Read More

Typology of dualisms in philosophy

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Ontological dualisms Ontological dualism consists of the affirmation of the dual character of existence in relation to spirit and matter, and can be divided into three categories: Substance dualism posits that mind and matter are fundamentally distinct types of substance. … Read More

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