Atomism

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Atomism is a philosophical current proposing a conception of a discontinuous universe, composed of matter and emptiness. According to atomists, the atoms that make up the universe are all of the same substance. They are indivisible and differ from each … Read More

Philosophy of logic

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The philosophy of logic is a part of the philosophy of science which is interested in the set of theoretical problems which traditionally come under logic, essentially comprising first of all the question of its essence, its history from its … Read More

Art criticism

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(Monkeys as Judges of Art, 1889, Gabriel von Max.) Art criticism is the value judgment expressed on works of art in the field of aesthetics, but also with regard to their relevance in a given social and political context. Art … Read More

Functionalism

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In philosophy of mind, functionalism is a theory which, for methodological reasons, conceives of the mind as an information processing system and compares thought to a computation (Hobbes conceived the reason this way). Resulting from research in artificial intelligence, functionalism … Read More

Social, Psychological, and Philosophical Reflections on Pandemics and Beyond

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Abraham Rudnick Introduction Societies are measured in part in relation to how they rise to the occasion of collective crises and learn from them. For example, both Taiwan and Canada (specifically Toronto) were similarly directly impacted by the Severe Acute Respiratory … Read More

Cogito, ergo sum

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Cogito, ergo sum is a Latin phrase meaning “I think, therefore I am”. Used by the philosopher and mathematician René Descartes in the Discourse on the Method (1637), the formula has a variant in his work in 1641, in the … Read More

Reverse discrimination

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Reverse discrimination refers to the discrimination of members of favors as deemed favor of a deemed disadvantaged group. Reverse sexism The onboard regulations of some Australian airlines such as Qantas Airways, Jetstar Airways and Virgin Australia prohibit male passengers from taking a seat next to children traveling alone.  This … Read More

Extension of the animal-machine concept to humans and in biology

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La Mettrie extends the Cartesian conception of animal-machines through the affirmation of a “man-machine” (1748). Nevertheless, such an extension of the mechanical model of comprehension, as effected by La Mettrie, constitutes a profoundly anti-Cartesian gesture: in this way, he challenges … Read More

Michel Foucault’s biopolitics and the COVID-19 pandemic

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The coronavirus pandemic has forced us to rethink the politics of health in the broadest sense. In particular, we have had to confront again that vexed  relationship between the state, the dominant social relations and public health. Concepts that may … Read More

Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Deontology

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The two-level utilitarianism developed by Hare is based on the recognition of the artificial nature of the dichotomy between deontologism and consequentialism. Very general moral rules, such as the no-harm rule, are most of the time useful and sufficient to … Read More

Different versions of utilitarianism

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The utilitarian calculus One of the important feature of utilitarianism is its pragmatism. The morality of an act is “calculated” on the basis of its effects, not the motives behind it. This calculation takes into account the consequences of the … Read More

Problem of Evil

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In philosophy, more specifically in theology, the problem of evil is the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of an omniscient, omnipotent and good God. We can distinguish two forms of the problem of evil: … Read More

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