Problem of induction

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The problem of induction (also: Humean problem or Hume problem) is a basic problem of epistemology. It relates to the question of whether and when a conclusion by inducing individual cases to a generally applicable law is permissible. It was first mentioned by David Hume around 1740 . Although the problem of induction was … Read More

Hallucination

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(My eyes at the moment of the apparitions by August Natterer, a German artist who created many drawings of his hallucinations.) A hallucination is defined, in psychiatry, as a sensory perception without the presence of a detectable stimulus: for example … Read More

Equal opportunities

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As a social value, equal opportunities is a complex concept. The term equality is, in fact, polysemous, and therefore subject to interpretation. Objectivity in the definition given in this article will therefore be relative. Note also the ambiguity of the … Read More

Animal ethics

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Animal ethics is the branch of ethics that studies the moral responsibility of the human species towards other animals. This discipline examines the moral judgments that can be made on the current treatment of animals and asks questions about our … Read More

Moral relativism

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Moral relativism (also: ethical relativism) is a metaethics positions of practical philosophy about moral principles, judgments and beliefs on social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. According to this position, values and judgments, especially moral judgments, are not objective and in principle not universally valid. Rather, values ​​are dependent of cultural, historical, especially material conditions and individual … Read More

Metaphysical and logical arguments for the existence of God

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During the history of philosophy and theology, many arguments for and against the existence of God have been made. The God in question here is what is sometimes called the God of the philosophers, namely the God of the great … Read More

German idealism

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German idealism is the generic name given to a set of philosophies developed in Germany at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Its main representatives are: Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), … Read More

Platonism

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Platonism or realism of ideas is a philosophical theory inspired more or less directly by the theory of forms of Plato, theory according to which there are intelligible entities in oneself, whose content is independent of the contingency of the … Read More

Philosophy of space and time

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The philosophy of space and time is a branch of philosophy that deals with problems related to the epistemological and ontological characters of space and time. Greek thought Fulfilling all the demands of nascent rationality, Greek philosophy is by nature … Read More

Realism

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In philosophy, realism refers to the position which affirms the existence of an external reality independent of our mind. Realism affirms both the existence and the independence of the world. Existence means that there is a world outside the subject, … Read More

Practical philosophy

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Practical philosophy is the branch of philosophy which deals with the actions and activities of men. It classically includes moral philosophy, political philosophy; and, since Kant, the philosophy of law. Introduction Aim and nature of practical philosophy The fundamental and … Read More

Modern philosophy

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Modern philosophy is the thought which, in the West, spans what historians call the modern era (1492-1789), including part of the Renaissance, the 17th century, and the Age of Enlightenment. It should not be confused with contemporary philosophy. Modern philosophy … Read More

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