Family resemblance

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(Family resemblance – It seems that there is nothing in common among Bridge and Soccer, but we conceder them both as games because they have many things in common with other games like paired Tennis.) A family resemblance, or family likeness, a … Read More

Philosophical aspects of pandemics

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Throughout human history, there have been a number of pandemics. The most devastating pandemic was the plague known as the Black Death, which killed about 200 million people in the 14th century, (Philipkoski 2015) and the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish … Read More

Philosophical zombie

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In the contemporary vocabulary of the philosophy of mind, by zombie (philosophical zombie or p-zombie) is meant a being physically and externally indistinguishable from a conscious being, by his behavior as by his physical constitution, but who, however, has no … Read More

What came first: the virus or the cell?

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Viruses reproduce only inside the living cells of organisms, (Wu 2020) being known so far more than 6,000 species of viruses. (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 2020) When it infects a cell, the viruses force it to rapidly … Read More

Falsifiability

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Falsifiability (also referred to as the use of refutability) was introduced by Karl Popper and is considered an important concept in epistemology, allowing to draw a line between scientific theories and those that are not. An assertion, a hypothesis, is … Read More

Social equality

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Social equality is a legal and philosophical concept. It stems from the principle of equality, which appears at the head of the declarations of human rights (universal declaration of human rights of 1948). This has two main aspects: civil equality, … Read More

Pain in animals

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According to Manfred Zimmermann, an aversive sensory experience can be described as pain perception in animals , “Which is triggered by actual or threatened injury, induces motor and vegetative protective reactions, leads to learned avoidance and possibly changes species-specific behavior, including social behavior.” – Zimmermann, How do animals feel pain? This definition follows that for … Read More

Philosophy of culture

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The philosophy of culture is a philosophy that formulates cultural theories, expresses distance from traditional conceptions and reflects cultural phenomena. It developed around the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Century in the context of social and political changes in the pre-war- and post-war … Read More

Cosmological argument

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The cosmological argument is a type of argument of classical natural theology that starts from some alleged properties of the observed universe (its coming into being, its being able to have been different from what it is, the contingency or … Read More

Schools of thought

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A school of thought refers to a collection of people who share similar opinions or a similar point of view in philosophy, in their academic discipline, in their beliefs, in a social movement, in a cultural movement or in an … Read More

eBook History

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1970s and 1980s In 1971, Michael Hart created the Gutenberg Project with the aim of digitizing a large quantity of books and creating a virtual library offering a collection of electronic documents for free access. With this project, Hart wanted … Read More

Physics disciplines, theories and methods

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Disciplines Contemporary physics research is divided into various disciplines that study different aspects of the physical world. Field(s) Disciplines Main theories Some concepts Astrophysics and Mechanics Cosmology, Planetology, Plasma Physics, Big Bang Astroparticles Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, General Relativity, Dark … Read More

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