Stoicism

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Kition at the end of the 4th century BC in Athens. Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics influenced by its logical system and views of the natural world. … Read More

Art forgery

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A fake is an imitation of an original work of art, which is not presented as a copy, or an original work of which an attempt is made to attribute authorship to an artist who is not the author, and … Read More

Token-identity theory- Anomalous monism

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The anomalous monism is a position of the philosophy of mind developed by Donald Davidson (1917 to 2003). On the one hand, it claims that every single mental event is identical to a single physical event. Second, the anomalous monism explains that types of mental events are not identical to types of physical … Read More

Phenomenalism

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Phenomenalism is a philosophical theory or belief concerning perception, knowledge, and physical reality. For the phenomenalist, there is no other reality than that of phenomena and everything that exists exists as a phenomenon. Contrary to idealism, with which it is … Read More

Freedom of speech

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Freedom of speech is the right recognized for the individual to make known the product of his own intellectual activity to those around him. It comes from the ability to communicate between humans. This has long been considered as a … Read More

Moral relativism: Classical anthropology – Critique of moral relativism

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Classical anthropology Anthropological research in the 19th and 20th centuries support the relativism. William Sumner (1840–1910) argued in his Folkways work, published in 1906, that right and wrong are always related to the prevailing social mores and customs and are shaped by practices and institutions. For … Read More

Immortality in history

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Immortality, or prolonged life ad libitum, implies the notion of a form of life or at least of thought escaping death, or of life after death, physical and / or spiritual of spirits and souls (body-soul problem), of a natural, … Read More

Post-structuralism

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The term post-structuralism denotes different approaches and methods in the humanities and social sciences, which first emerged in France at the end of the 1960s and which deal critically in different ways with the relationship between linguistic practice and social reality. The decisive factor here is the view that language not only … Read More

Neoplatonism

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Neoplatonism is a philosophical doctrine, developed by Platonists of late Antiquity as a result of mid-Platonism. Philo of Alexandria is the precursor of this movement towards 40, then it develops in Rome from 232 by Ammonios Saccas, master of Plotinus, … Read More

Relativism

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Relativism is a “movement of thought that has spanned the centuries since Greco-Roman Antiquity” (Raymond Boudon), to designate a set of varied doctrines which have in common the defense of the thesis according to which the meaning and value of … Read More

Analytic aesthetics

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(Fontaine, by Marcel Duchamp, 1917. The analytical aesthetic is constructed from a reflection on conceptual art and pop art.) Analytic aesthetics is a philosophical stream that emerged in the 1950s in the English-speaking world, which particularly studies notions related to … Read More

Argument from Analogy

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The “argument from analogy” is an argument which compares two ratios, that is to say four terms, in a crossed reasoning, of the type ”if a is to b what c is to d”. It is therefore a matter of … Read More

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