Philosophy during the Renaissance

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In humanist environments of the 15th century, so different from the Universities, under the protection of princes or popes, secular and ecclesiastical people met indifferently, at the Platonic Academy in the Florence of Lorenzo the Magnificent, as at the Aldine … Read More

Philosophy of the 14th century – Duns Scotus (1)

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(Duns Scotus) The first symptom of this disintegration is found in the movement of ideas inaugurated by Duns Scotus, the subtle doctor. He had a very short career: born in Scotland around 1265, he studied the “arts” and theology at … Read More

The philosophy in the 13th century

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We know what magnificent praise Auguste Comte (1) makes of the 13th century: an organic age par excellence which achieved spiritual unity, true catholicity. Towards this century turns the dream of all those who consider all social peace impossible without … Read More

Eastern philosophy during the Middle Ages

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The destinies of the West during the Middle Ages were partly determined by the Arab conquest which, extending from India to Spain and advancing to the south of Italy and the Greek islands, formed a sort of screen between Europe … Read More

The 12th century in philosophy – The Sententiaries

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The twelfth century is a century of ardent and varied thought, tumultuous and confused too: on the one hand a need for systematization and unity which gives birth to these kinds of theological encyclopedias which are the books of the … Read More

Philosophy in the 10th and 11th centuries in France

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We had to wait until the end of the 11th century to see, in the West, a real resumption of intellectual activity: not that this intermediate period was empty or unimportant. It is found everywhere, and in monasteries and in … Read More

Philosophy in the Beginnings of the Middle Ages

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Around the 5th century, the unity of Mediterranean civilization was broken at the same time as political unity. With the destruction of cities which marked the invasion of the Barbarians throughout the West, the traditional centers of culture disappeared; with … Read More

Development of Neoplatonism – Plotinus

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Neoplatonism is essentially, as we have already seen, a method for accessing an intelligible reality and a construction or description of this reality. The biggest mistake we could make is to believe that this reality has the essential function of … Read More

Currents of philosopical ideas in the first two centuries AD

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Nothing is more confused than the history of intellectual thought in the first two centuries of our era; these two centuries saw the last brilliance of the great post-Aristotelian dogmatisms shine with Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius, then disappear. Conversely, … Read More

Middle Stoicism in the 1st century BC

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The scholars who succeeded Chrysippus – during the 2nd century until Panetius, from 204 to 129 – already show us a certain change in Stoic thought and a relaxation of dogmatism. Sextus says, without specifying further, that the new Stoics … Read More

Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies

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About the analogy between the epistemological and methodological aspects of the activity of intelligence agencies and some scientific disciplines, advocating for a more scientific approach to the process of collecting and analyzing information within the intelligence cycle. I assert that … Read More

Polystratus the Epicurean

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It is impossible to better grasp the currents of ideas which agitated minds towards the middle of the second century than in the little treatise On the Unreasonable Contempt for Popular Opinions by Polystratus (1) who succeeded Hermarqus at the … Read More

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