Rationalist philosophy on the free will

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If Thomism attributes free will to Adam, in the Garden of Eden, mainly to impute to him the origin of evil through disobedience to the order given by God not to eat the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge … Read More

Criticisms of ontological argument for the existence of God

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Gaunilon and Thomas Aquinas opposed, in the Middle Ages, the ontological argument developed by Saint Anselm: it is not because we imagine and design a fortunate island that it necessarily exists, Gaunilon objects in substance. Similarly, it could be objected … Read More

Ontological argument for the existence of God, exposed by famous philosophers

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Spinoza It is in proposition 11 of the first part of the Ethics that Spinoza proposes a proof of the existence of God by the essentialist approach. The statement of this proposition is: “God, that is, a substance consisting of … Read More

Fine tuning argument for the existence of God: Appearance of heavy elements in the Universe and tuning the fundamental forces of our universe

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Appearance of heavy elements in the Universe Heavy elements 98% of visible matter is made up of hydrogen and helium. All the other elements (heavy elements: carbon, iron, oxygen in particular which are the constituents of organic matter and therefore … Read More

Fine tuning argument for the existence of God – The adjustment of the constants of the Universe

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The characteristics of the universe in which we evolve depend on about fifteen physical constants. In the current absence of a unifying principle, they are considered independent of each other. The advent of supercomputers allowed astrophysics to model the development … Read More

Teleological argument for the existence of God

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The appeal to design or teleological argument postulates that there are ends in nature, which implies the existence of an intelligent principle, orderer of the world, that is to say of a Creator. This is the classic argument of natural … Read More

Empirical arguments against the existence of God

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Arguments of the indigence of Creation The argument for the neediness of Creation arises from the following question: How could God, being perfect, have created an imperfect world? It takes the form of the following contraposition: If there is a … Read More

Metaphysical, logical and epistemic arguments against the existence of God

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Metaphysical and logical arguments The existence of God is unverifiable and therefore meaningless According to the verificationist theory of meaning, the meaning of an utterance is determined by its conditions of verification. But God is not a being whose existence … Read More

Empirical arguments on the existence of God

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Teleological argument or the argument from design The teleological argument (physico-theological argument, argument from design, or intelligent design argument) is the argument for the existence of God that is based on discernible evidence of order, intent, design, or direction — … Read More

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz on the existence of God (cosmological argument)

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Leibniz’s proposed variant, often referred to as “by the contingency” cosmological argument, is enjoying some resurgence in popularity these days. Championed by contemporary philosophers like Alexander Pruss and Joshua Rasmussen, it is based on the distinction between the contingent and … Read More

What does ‘God’ mean? Is God Knowable?

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What does ‘God’ mean? To this question, there is a great plurality of philosophical, sociological, or ideological opinions about religion. The religions have various interpretations on the part of the philosophers and the “founding” theorists of the various human sciences. … Read More

God in Philosophy

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First or only principle Philosophers have conceived of divinity in very different ways. For some, polytheism does not exclude a supreme divine principle like the logos or “immanent reason of the Universe” for the Stoics, but it is more a … Read More

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