Epistemology, from empiricism to logical positivism

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Empiricism (Isaac Newton) Empiricism postulates that all knowledge comes essentially from experience. Represented by the English philosophers Roger Bacon, John Locke and George Berkeley, this current postulates that knowledge is based on the accumulation of observations and measurable facts, from … Read More

Cartesian epistemology

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According to Hervé Barreau, modern epistemology derives from Kant’s criticism in the eighteenth century and from the positivism of Comte in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But it also draws on older traditions, including ancient and Cartesian traditions. It was … Read More

Epistemology and science

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Field of application of epistemology For a long time, epistemology has focused exclusively on the content of science, the history of this content, and the genealogy of the advances of this content. Science as a human institution was left to … Read More

Main Indian philosophies

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Nyâya The Nyâya school of philosophical speculation is based on a text called Nyâya Sûtra. It was composed by Gautama Aksapada (not to be confused with Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism), around the fourth or fifth century BC. The … Read More

Ontology

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Ontology in its most general sense questions the meaning of the word “to be”. “What is being?”, considered as an inaugural question, that is to say, first in time and first in the order of knowledge, is that of the … Read More

Philosophical debates on knowledge

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Positivism vs. Constructivism Some epistemological postures consider the object “knowledge” in a radically different way: the positivist posture considers the truth value of propositional knowledge representing reality as independent of the will of men, without metaphysical content and where a … Read More

Foundationist definition of knowledge

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Aristotle (Seconds Analytics), Descartes (Rules for the Direction of Mind), Locke (Essay on the Human Understanding), Hume (Treatise on the Human Understanding), Kant (Criticism of Pure Reason), and Russell (Problems of philosophy, 1912, Theory of knowledge, 1913, Our knowledge of … Read More

Philosophy of religion

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The philosophy of religion is the part of philosophy that asks the question of what a religion is. According to the concept of religion which is thus posed and according to the fundamental question which one poses on the religion, … Read More

Descartes: Discourse on the Method (2-1)

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I was then in Germany, where the occasion of the wars, which are not yet finished, had called me; and as I was returning from the coronation of the Emperor to the army, the commencement of the winter stopped me … Read More

Political philosophy

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(Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of “The School of Athens”, a fresco by Raphael. Plato’s “Republic“, and Aristotle’s “Politics“ secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.) Political philosophy is a branch … Read More

Theory of knowledge

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(Nature unveiling itself to Science Allegory of Louis-Ernest Barrias.) The theory of knowledge has been assimilated to the philosophy of knowledge and to gnoseology. When the theory of knowledge is assimilated to the philosophy of knowledge, it is part of … Read More

Action theory

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The philosophy of action is a branch of philosophy that deals with problems relating to human action, its nature, its motivations and intentionality. It is undoubtedly one of the most important branches in the contemporary philosophical debate even if it … Read More

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