Hedonism

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Hedonism (from Ancient Greek: ἡδονή / hēdonḗ, “pleasure” and suffix -ισμός / -ismós) is a philosophical doctrine attributed to Aristippus of Cyrene according to which the pursuit of pleasures and the avoidance of suffering constitute the goal of human life … Read More

The “logical” dimension of positivism

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The “logical” dimension of positivism The main novelty of the Vienna Circle consists in its use of the logic developed by Frege and Russell for the study of scientific problems. The conception of philosophy is thus radically modified, to focus … Read More

Scholasticism

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(Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), scholastic philosopher.) Scholasticism ( derived from the term schola, comes from the Greek scholê in the sense of idleness, free time, inactivity, which – later – means: “to hold school, to give lessons”) is the philosophy … Read More

Reformism

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Reformism refers to political doctrines aimed at improving existing structures of a country, economic and social, through gradual changes in laws rather than through revolution or schism. Reformist socialism was defined by Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) who considered that the abolition … Read More

Pascal’s Wager on the existence of God

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(Blaise Pascal) Pascal’s wager is a philosophical argument developed by Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century French philosopher, mathematician, and physicist. The argument tries to prove that a rational person has every interest in believing in God, whether God exists or not. … Read More

Pragmatism

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Pragmatism is an American philosophical school. According to the founder of pragmatism, Charles Sanders Peirce, the meaning of an expression lies in its practical consequences. Peirce proposed the use of the word pragmaticism to distinguish his approach from non-philosophical uses … Read More

Stoicism

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Kition at the end of the 4th century BC in Athens. Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics influenced by its logical system and views of the natural world. … Read More

Art forgery

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A fake is an imitation of an original work of art, which is not presented as a copy, or an original work of which an attempt is made to attribute authorship to an artist who is not the author, and … Read More

Token-identity theory- Anomalous monism

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The anomalous monism is a position of the philosophy of mind developed by Donald Davidson (1917 to 2003). On the one hand, it claims that every single mental event is identical to a single physical event. Second, the anomalous monism explains that types of mental events are not identical to types of physical … Read More

Phenomenalism

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Phenomenalism is a philosophical theory or belief concerning perception, knowledge, and physical reality. For the phenomenalist, there is no other reality than that of phenomena and everything that exists exists as a phenomenon. Contrary to idealism, with which it is … Read More

Freedom of speech

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Freedom of speech is the right recognized for the individual to make known the product of his own intellectual activity to those around him. It comes from the ability to communicate between humans. This has long been considered as a … Read More

Moral relativism: Classical anthropology – Critique of moral relativism

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Classical anthropology Anthropological research in the 19th and 20th centuries support the relativism. William Sumner (1840–1910) argued in his Folkways work, published in 1906, that right and wrong are always related to the prevailing social mores and customs and are shaped by practices and institutions. For … Read More

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