The concepts of Stoicism

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Wisdom and philosophy Stoic philosophy is a coherent whole: it is a philosophy of totality which aims to be consciously systematic, which is one of the characteristic traits of ancient systems of thought. This doctrine proceeds to divisions of the … Read More

Historiography of materialist philosophies

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Greek Antiquity and the Modern Age: appearance and resurgence of mechanism Materialism has developed in a mechanistic form since antiquity. The Ionian philosophers of the school of Miletus – Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander – seem to be the first materialist philosophers … Read More

Structuralism

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Structuralism is a collective term for interdisciplinary methods and research programs that examine structures and relationships in the mechanisms of cultural symbol systems that function largely unconsciously Structuralism is a set of holistic currents of thought that appeared mainly in the human and … Read More

Phenomenology

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Phenomenology (from the Greek: φαινόμενον (phainómenon), “what appears”; and λόγος (lógos), “study”) is a current of thought of the twentieth century founded by Edmund Husserl with the aim of making philosophy a scientific discipline. It takes its name from its … Read More

Negative and positive freedom

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Negative freedom Negative freedom, or freedom ”from”, or freedom as an absence of impediment, indicates within the political terminology the possibility that someone has to act without anyone intervening to hinder him or even the decision to remain passive without … Read More

Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Deontology

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The two-level utilitarianism developed by Hare is based on the recognition of the artificial nature of the dichotomy between deontologism and consequentialism. Very general moral rules, such as the no-harm rule, are most of the time useful and sufficient to … Read More

Logicism

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Logicism is an attitude towards mathematics according to which it is an extension of logic and therefore all mathematical concepts and theories are reducible to logic. If this program were feasible, it could support logical positivism in particular, and reductionism … Read More

Relationship between perception and knowledge – Conceptualism

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According to some analyzes, the intentional content of perception is entirely conceptual. One can not perceive an object without mobilizing some concept of that object and without forming, or being willing to form, any belief about it. (The Müller-Lyer illusion … Read More

Non-realistic theories in the philosophy of perception

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Phenomenalism opposes the realism of perception by considering that perception gives us access only to complexes of sensitive data, which do not exist independently of the fact of being or being able to be perceived. The classical origin of phenomenalism … Read More

Dualistic solutions in philosophy of mind

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Dualism consists of a set of philosophical positions about the relationship between mind and matter (or body). The dualism began with the assertion that mental phenomena are, in some respects, other than physical. One of the earliest known formulations of … Read More

Foundationist definition of knowledge

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Aristotle (Seconds Analytics), Descartes (Rules for the Direction of Mind), Locke (Essay on the Human Understanding), Hume (Treatise on the Human Understanding), Kant (Criticism of Pure Reason), and Russell (Problems of philosophy, 1912, Theory of knowledge, 1913, Our knowledge of … Read More

Political philosophy

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(Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of “The School of Athens”, a fresco by Raphael. Plato’s “Republic“, and Aristotle’s “Politics“ secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.) Political philosophy is a branch … Read More

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