Epicurus and Epicureanism

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After the massive system of the Stoics, it is a relaxation to rest in the garden where Epicurus philosophizes in private with his friends, while Zeno attracts the public crowd to the Poecile portico. Between these two minds, nothing in … Read More

The Ancient Stoics and Hellenism

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We call Hellenistic age the period during which Greek culture became the common good of all Mediterranean countries; from the death of Alexander until the Roman conquest, we see it gradually assert itself, from Egypt and Syria to Rome and … Read More

The Socratics

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To the same Socrates, from whom the movement of ideas – the philosophy of the concept – came, history connects a group of contemporary schools called Socratic; they are all in decided hostility to this movement of ideas, although, moreover, … Read More

Historicity of reason – Contemporary critique of modern rationalism

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Historicity of reason With the Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel put forward the historicity of a reason which develops its forms through the history of the world. The Hegelian discovery is the historical character of reason, and this awareness of historicity … Read More

The main features of classical pragmatism in the social sciences

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The inquiry theory The inquiry as fixation of belief in Peirce In The Fixation of Belief (1877), Peirce thinks of inquiry not as the pursuit of truth per se, but as a struggle to move from irritating and inhibiting doubt … Read More

Pragmatism and philosophy

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An original conception of philosophy For several reasons, pragmatism has long passed, especially in Europe, for a non-philosophy or for an “American redneck”. First of all, pragmatism is an active philosophy that does not seek truth through intellectualism alone. Its … Read More

Absolute idealism

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Schelling and the “philosophy of identity” (Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling.) At the very end of the 18th century, Friedrich W. J. Schelling, a young German philosopher claiming to be first of Fichte, wrote a series of works which influenced … Read More

Structuralism in the United States

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The plurality of disciplines involved in structuralism and the methodologies used reflects the heterogeneous nature of the classic definition of it, and some authors (such as Jean Piaget in psychology) prefer to insert structuralism into a long-term history of scientific … Read More

Criticism of Marxism

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Critics of economists Economics has undergone a paradigm shift since the end of the 19th century with the triumph of neoclassical theory. This introduced a break with the classical national economy on which Marx’s analysis was based and which consists … Read More

Criticisms of Consequentialism

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Consequentialism has been criticized on several counts. For Moore, in Principia Ethica, consequentialism, or at least classical utilitarianism (which, let us recall, defines the moral good as the maximum of pleasures associated with the minimum of pains), falls into naturalistic … Read More

General principles of the German Idealism

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German Idealism takes from Kant the idea of ​​a “Reason” master of the totality of being (God, world and man), which works to expose the coherence of Nature (or world). This mastery implies the autonomy and self-foundation of Reason vis-à-vis … Read More

Modern idealism

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One can distinguish during the modern period preceding Kant two antagonistic forms of idealism: a rationalist idealism and an empiricist idealism. The first, oriented towards the concepts of reason, developed essentially between the middle of the 17th century, after René … Read More

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