Phenomenology

|

Phenomenology (from the Greek: φαινόμενον (phainómenon), “what appears”; and λόγος (lógos), “study”) is a current of thought of the twentieth century founded by Edmund Husserl with the aim of making philosophy a scientific discipline. It takes its name from its … Read More

Naturalism and science, philosophy of mind and ethics

|

Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More

Pythagoreanism

|

The Pythagorean school founded by Pythagoras (580-495 BC) in Magna Graecia constitutes a brotherhood that is both scientific and religious: Pythagoreanism is indeed based on an initiation and offers its followers a way of ethics and food life, as well … Read More

Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Deontology

|

The two-level utilitarianism developed by Hare is based on the recognition of the artificial nature of the dichotomy between deontologism and consequentialism. Very general moral rules, such as the no-harm rule, are most of the time useful and sufficient to … Read More

Ancient philosophy

|

(Marble bust of Roman origin (1st century BC) representing Socrates, copy of a lost bronze (by Lysippus).) The term ancient philosophy generally designates the philosophy that was born in the 7th century BC, and which developed with Socrates and Plato, … Read More

German idealism

|

German idealism is the generic name given to a set of philosophies developed in Germany at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. Its main representatives are: Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), … Read More

Schools of thought

|

A school of thought refers to a collection of people who share similar opinions or a similar point of view in philosophy, in their academic discipline, in their beliefs, in a social movement, in a cultural movement or in an … Read More

The development of Confucianism until its official recognition

|

The main disciples of the master are called the Twelve Philosophers and revered in Confucian temples. When Confucianism becomes official doctrine for the recruitment of civil servants under the previous Han, we can already distinguish different currents. Thereafter, two thousand … Read More

Aristotelianism

|

(Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez) Aristotelianism is the name given to the doctrine derived from the works of Aristotle, from the Persian philosopher Avicenna and the Andalusian philosopher Averroes in particular, then gradually adopted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by … Read More

Confucianism

|

(Confucius, from a Chinese bronze) Confucianism, Rújiā “school of the literati” then Rúxué “teaching of the literati”, is one of the greatest philosophical, moral, political and to a lesser extent religious schools of China. It developed over two millennia from … Read More

The history of contemporary philosophy

|

 (A. von Menzel, The iron rolling mill (1875). The Industrial Revolution brings about a change in living conditions, which reflects on philosophical, economic and political thought.) The philosophy of the nineteenth century is divided into different directions. It includes Romantic … Read More

Western philosophy

|

 (School of Athens: Epicurus, Averroes, Pythagoras Parmenides, Socrates, by Raphael) Western philosophy refers to philosophical thought and its elaboration in the West, thus distinguishing itself from Eastern philosophy or other diverse tendencies observed among many indigenous peoples. The term is … Read More

1 2