Hedonism

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Hedonism (from Ancient Greek: ἡδονή / hēdonḗ, “pleasure” and suffix -ισμός / -ismós) is a philosophical doctrine attributed to Aristippus of Cyrene according to which the pursuit of pleasures and the avoidance of suffering constitute the goal of human life … Read More

The “logical” dimension of positivism

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The “logical” dimension of positivism The main novelty of the Vienna Circle consists in its use of the logic developed by Frege and Russell for the study of scientific problems. The conception of philosophy is thus radically modified, to focus … Read More

Scholasticism

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(Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), scholastic philosopher.) Scholasticism ( derived from the term schola, comes from the Greek scholê in the sense of idleness, free time, inactivity, which – later – means: “to hold school, to give lessons”) is the philosophy … Read More

Pragmatism

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Pragmatism is an American philosophical school. According to the founder of pragmatism, Charles Sanders Peirce, the meaning of an expression lies in its practical consequences. Peirce proposed the use of the word pragmaticism to distinguish his approach from non-philosophical uses … Read More

Stoicism

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Kition at the end of the 4th century BC in Athens. Stoicism is a philosophy of personal ethics influenced by its logical system and views of the natural world. … Read More

Neoplatonism

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Neoplatonism is a philosophical doctrine, developed by Platonists of late Antiquity as a result of mid-Platonism. Philo of Alexandria is the precursor of this movement towards 40, then it develops in Rome from 232 by Ammonios Saccas, master of Plotinus, … Read More

Relativism

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Relativism is a “movement of thought that has spanned the centuries since Greco-Roman Antiquity” (Raymond Boudon), to designate a set of varied doctrines which have in common the defense of the thesis according to which the meaning and value of … Read More

Phenomenology

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Phenomenology (from the Greek: φαινόμενον (phainómenon), “what appears”; and λόγος (lógos), “study”) is a current of thought of the twentieth century founded by Edmund Husserl with the aim of making philosophy a scientific discipline. It takes its name from its … Read More

Naturalism and science, philosophy of mind and ethics

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Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More

Pythagoreanism

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The Pythagorean school founded by Pythagoras (580-495 BC) in Magna Graecia constitutes a brotherhood that is both scientific and religious: Pythagoreanism is indeed based on an initiation and offers its followers a way of ethics and food life, as well … Read More

Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Deontology

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The two-level utilitarianism developed by Hare is based on the recognition of the artificial nature of the dichotomy between deontologism and consequentialism. Very general moral rules, such as the no-harm rule, are most of the time useful and sufficient to … Read More

Ancient philosophy

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(Marble bust of Roman origin (1st century BC) representing Socrates, copy of a lost bronze (by Lysippus).) The term ancient philosophy generally designates the philosophy that was born in the 7th century BC, and which developed with Socrates and Plato, … Read More

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