Forms of civil disobedience

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Different cases and forms of civil disobedience The material forms of the claimed actions of civil disobedience are very diverse. A distinction can be made in particular between those that are essentially passive, those that are more offensive and, among … Read More

Formation of the concept of civil disobedience

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From Antiquity to Modern Times A form of civil disobedience already existed in the myth of Antigone, who defies the laws of the city to give her brother a decent burial, and in Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, where women decide to refuse … Read More

Biopolitics and Geopolitics

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Sfetcu, Nicolae (2022). Biopolitics and Geopolitics, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35747.73767, in Telework: https://www.telework.ro/en/biopolitics-and-geopolitics/   Abstract Biopower refers to the practice of modern nation-states through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugation of bodies and the control of populations. … Read More

Nuclear deterrence

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Nuclear deterrence is based on both sides’ fear of the other’s use of nuclear weapons, and on the doctrine of mutual vulnerability. Deterrence consists in preventing an act by persuading the actor concerned that the costs of such an action … Read More

Anarchism: principles, currents and criticism

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General principles Lack of hierarchical authority Anarchism is a political philosophy that presents a vision of a human society without hierarchy, and which proposes strategies to achieve it, by overthrowing the authoritarian social system. The main objective of anarchism is … Read More

Implementation of the freedom of speech – Extended scope

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The conditions under which freedom of expression applies are ambivalent. On the one hand, it is considered fundamental, since it conditions the exercise of other freedoms. Thus, superior courts, both supranational and national, enshrine its importance in similar terms. For … Read More

Features, limits and criticism of the representative democracy

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Features Vote In a representative system, voting is a mode of designation and not a transfer of responsibility. Elected officials derive their legitimacy from the delegation of sovereignty to their electors since the latter then no longer have any means … Read More

Currents of thought and instruments of direct democracy

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Philosophers and currents of thought linked to direct democracy Age of Enlightenment In the 18th century, Europe rediscovered the democratic ideal with Jean-Jacques Rousseau, theoretician of popular sovereignty, and the encyclopaedists who were the Enlightenment. The author of The Social … Read More

Criticisms of the democracy

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Inability of citizens to govern, ignorance and inexperience of the masses Plato was the first to develop an important analysis and theory aimed at denouncing democracy, in this case the Athenian democracy, in which he lived. His criticism therefore does … Read More

Democratic institutions

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There are different forms of democracies, but they are all based on a few fundamental and common principles. These principles can be expressed in various ways. Indeed there are no precise institutions but essential principles which must be formulated in … Read More

Indirect democracy or representative democracy

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(Political regimes around the world (2022) Republics  Full presidential republics  Republics with an executive presidency elected by or nominated by the legislature  Semi-presidential republics  Parliamentary republics  Republics where the constitution grants the right to govern only to a single party … Read More

Concepts and main abstract notions of Karl Marx

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Marx, observer of the evolution of human societies The concept of social class was not invented by Karl Marx. It was used by the founders of political economy (Adam Smith…) and in the tradition of French political history (Alexis de … Read More

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