Retributive justice

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Retributive justice or retributionism is a theory of justice – and more specifically a theory of punishment – that holds that proportional retribution is a morally acceptable response to the offense or crime, regardless of whether or not this measure … Read More

Reverse discrimination

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Reverse discrimination refers to the discrimination of members of favors as deemed favor of a deemed disadvantaged group. Reverse sexism The onboard regulations of some Australian airlines such as Qantas Airways, Jetstar Airways and Virgin Australia prohibit male passengers from taking a seat next to children traveling alone.  This … Read More

Equal opportunities

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As a social value, equal opportunities is a complex concept. The term equality is, in fact, polysemous, and therefore subject to interpretation. Objectivity in the definition given in this article will therefore be relative. Note also the ambiguity of the … Read More

Equality of outcome

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The equality of outcome (equality of results) is a concept of social justice that defends real equality achieved and proven in the field of human rights, both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights . (In the novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, the Dodo tells Alice … Read More

Through the pandemic, towards a new communism?

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Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, Slavoj Žižek published a book called Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World (Žižek 2020a) which triggered a wave of reactions. In the book, he presents how the media ruthlessly exploited this subject, accentuating the … Read More

Biopolitics in the COVID-19 pandemic

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Biopower is a term coined by Michel Foucault, referring to the practice of modern nation-states by “an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations”. (Foucault 1990, 140) Foucault used the … Read More

Social equality

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Social equality is a legal and philosophical concept. It stems from the principle of equality, which appears at the head of the declarations of human rights (universal declaration of human rights of 1948). This has two main aspects: civil equality, … Read More

Civil disobedience

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(Sebastian Loscher: Allegory of Justice (1536)) Civil disobedience is the public and accepted refusal to submit to a law, regulation, organization or power deemed unfair by those who challenge it, while making this refusal a peaceful weapon of combat. The … Read More

Deterrence theory

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Deterrence is a theory that one can prevent someone from doing something by fear of potential consequences. (The USS Growler, one of two submarines designed to provide a nuclear deterrence using missile cruise with a 500-mile (800 km) range-placed on … Read More

Freedom (Liberty)

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(Liberty Enlightening the World, known as the Statue of Liberty, was donated to the US by France and is an artistic personification of liberty. ) Generally speaking, freedom, or liberty is a concept that designates the possibility of action or … Read More

Consequences of global warming in economy, health and geopolitics

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Access to the Arctic Ocean A decrease in Arctic polar ice has opened up new trade routes for ships, and would make undersea resources of oil or raw materials accessible, but with adverse consequences for many species, such as plankton … Read More

Representative democracy IS NOT democracy

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(House of Commons of the United Kingdom) Representative democracy ( indirect democracy, representative republic, representative government or psephocracy), is a political system in which a restricted assembly is recognized as having the right to represent a people, a nation or … Read More

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