Naturalism and science, philosophy of mind and ethics

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Naturalism and natural sciences Relationship to science The naturalist perspective leads to accord philosophy to the data of the natural sciences. This agreement implies three types of requirements for the philosophy: Scientific data must be integrated into philosophical reflection; Philosophical … Read More

Pythagoreanism

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The Pythagorean school founded by Pythagoras (580-495 BC) in Magna Graecia constitutes a brotherhood that is both scientific and religious: Pythagoreanism is indeed based on an initiation and offers its followers a way of ethics and food life, as well … Read More

Atomism

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Atomism is a philosophical current proposing a conception of a discontinuous universe, composed of matter and emptiness. According to atomists, the atoms that make up the universe are all of the same substance. They are indivisible and differ from each … Read More

Problem of induction

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The problem of induction (also: Humean problem or Hume problem) is a basic problem of epistemology. It relates to the question of whether and when a conclusion by inducing individual cases to a generally applicable law is permissible. It was first mentioned by David Hume around 1740 . Although the problem of induction was … Read More

Philosophy of space and time

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The philosophy of space and time is a branch of philosophy that deals with problems related to the epistemological and ontological characters of space and time. Greek thought Fulfilling all the demands of nascent rationality, Greek philosophy is by nature … Read More

Criticism of scientism

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Philosophical criticism The philosopher Louis Jugnet (1913-1973) summarized the philosophical criticism of scientism in three paragraphs: “Scientism is […] the imperialism of Laboratory Science over all areas of human thought and consciousness. It is an attitude that reigned over almost … Read More

Virus Ontology: Thing, Being, Process, or Information?

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The study of viruses raises pressing conceptual and philosophical questions about their nature, their classification, (O’Malley 2014, 45–94) (Mayr 1953) and their place within the biological world. A major set of problems concerns the individuality and diachronic identity of a … Read More

What came first: the virus or the cell?

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Viruses reproduce only inside the living cells of organisms, (Wu 2020) being known so far more than 6,000 species of viruses. (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 2020) When it infects a cell, the viruses force it to rapidly … Read More

Falsifiability

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Falsifiability (also referred to as the use of refutability) was introduced by Karl Popper and is considered an important concept in epistemology, allowing to draw a line between scientific theories and those that are not. An assertion, a hypothesis, is … Read More

Physics disciplines, theories and methods

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Disciplines Contemporary physics research is divided into various disciplines that study different aspects of the physical world. Field(s) Disciplines Main theories Some concepts Astrophysics and Mechanics Cosmology, Planetology, Plasma Physics, Big Bang Astroparticles Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, General Relativity, Dark … Read More

Heuristics of String Theory

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The logical positivists would have considered string theory as a speculative metaphysics. The instrumentalist aspect of logical positivism does not correspond with the opinions of string theorists. From the point of view of Popper’s falsifiability, [1] we clearly distinguish between … Read More

Epistemology of Canonical Quantum Gravity – Loop Quantum Gravity

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In the interpretation of canonical quantum gravity (CQG), gravity appears as a geometric pseudoforce, is reduced to spacetime geometry and becomes a simple effect of spacetime curvature. [1] (Maudlin[2]). Lehmkuhl[3] argues that canonical formalism does not confirm this interpretation. General … Read More

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