Freedom of speech

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Freedom of speech is the right recognized for the individual to make known the product of his own intellectual activity to those around him. It comes from the ability to communicate between humans. This has long been considered as a … Read More

Negative and positive freedom

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Negative freedom Negative freedom, or freedom ”from”, or freedom as an absence of impediment, indicates within the political terminology the possibility that someone has to act without anyone intervening to hinder him or even the decision to remain passive without … Read More

Marxism

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Marxism is a current of political, sociological and economic thought founded on the ideas of Karl Marx (and to a lesser extent of Friedrich Engels) and his followers. Politically, Marxism is based on participation in the real movement of the … Read More

Equal opportunities

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As a social value, equal opportunities is a complex concept. The term equality is, in fact, polysemous, and therefore subject to interpretation. Objectivity in the definition given in this article will therefore be relative. Note also the ambiguity of the … Read More

Equality of outcome

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The equality of outcome (equality of results) is a concept of social justice that defends real equality achieved and proven in the field of human rights, both civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights . (In the novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, the Dodo tells Alice … Read More

Through the pandemic, towards a new communism?

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Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, Slavoj Žižek published a book called Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World (Žižek 2020a) which triggered a wave of reactions. In the book, he presents how the media ruthlessly exploited this subject, accentuating the … Read More

Biopolitics in the COVID-19 pandemic

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Biopower is a term coined by Michel Foucault, referring to the practice of modern nation-states by “an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations”. (Foucault 1990, 140) Foucault used the … Read More

Social equality

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Social equality is a legal and philosophical concept. It stems from the principle of equality, which appears at the head of the declarations of human rights (universal declaration of human rights of 1948). This has two main aspects: civil equality, … Read More

Global warming and gender equality are the priorities of Ursula von der Leyen

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Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen (born Albrecht, on October 8, 1958) is a German politician and elected president of the European Commission. She was Germany’s Defense Minister from 2013 to 2019. Member of the center-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU), she … Read More

Representative democracy IS NOT democracy

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(House of Commons of the United Kingdom) Representative democracy ( indirect democracy, representative republic, representative government or psephocracy), is a political system in which a restricted assembly is recognized as having the right to represent a people, a nation or … Read More

Direct democracy

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(A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland. ) Direct democracy is a political system in which citizens directly exercise power without the intermediary of representatives. Initially equivalent to the concept of democracy since … Read More

Democracy

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(A map of the world showing the results of The Economist’s Democracy Index survey for 2017. ) Full democracies    9–10    8–8.9 Flawed democracies    7–7.9    6–6.9 Hybrid regimes    5–5.9    4–4.9 Authoritarian regimes    3–3.9    … Read More

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