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Philosophy – Basic Notions, Volume 2

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Philosophy - Basic Notions, Volume 2A basic introduction to the world of philosophy, with answers to the deepest questions we all ask ourselves, through the lens of the world’s greatest philosophers, from Plato and Confucius to modern thinkers. A guide to the fundamental nature of existence, society and the way we think.

After an overview of philosophy, with the history of philosophy, branches of philosophy, philosophical concepts and philosophical schools and traditions, specific topics in philosophy are addressed, such as God (religion), good and evil (ethics), animal rights, politics (political philosophy), appearance and reality, science (philosophy of science), mind (philosophy of mind), and art (aesthetics).

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning such matters as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classical philosophical questions include both abstract questions (Is it possible to know something and prove it? What is most real?) and more practical and concrete questions (Is there an optimal way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do people have free will?)

Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of approaching these problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and reliance on rational arguments.

Other investigations are closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? The main sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics (“concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being”), epistemology (about the nature and foundations of knowledge andits limits and validity), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic, philosophy of science and the history of Western philosophy.

Many philosophical debates that began in antiquity are still debated today.

 

CONTENTS:

7 Right and wrong
– 7.1 Ethics
– – Fundamental problems of moral philosophy
– – Fundamental conceptions of moral philosophy
– – – Teleological ethics
– – – – Consequential Morals
– – – – Ethics of perfection
– – – Deontological ethics
– – – The problem of the foundation of morality
– – Proceduralism
– – Consequentialism
– – Values
– – Virtues
– – Meta-ethics
– – Applied ethics
– 7.1.1 Meta-ethics
– – Etymology
– – History
– 7.1.2 Applied ethics
– 7.1.3 Normative ethics
– – Main positions
– – Normative theories
– – – Consequentialism
– – – Deontology
– – – – Virtue ethics
– – Relationship with other disciplines
– 7.2 Philosophy of culture
– – Culture as a joint activity
– – Sketch of a cultural upheaval
– – – Ubiquitous traditional views
– – – New perspectives are spreading
– – – The First World War
– – – Reactions after the war
– – Cultural theories
– – – Theories of philosophy of life
– – – Materialistic theories
– 7.3 Duty-based theories
– 7.4 Christian ethics
– – Subdivision of discipline
– – Method
– 7.5 Kantian ethics
– – Shift from the common rational knowledge of morality to philosophical knowledge
– – Shift from popular moral philosophy to the metaphysics of morals.
– – Shift from the metaphysics of mores to the critique of pure practical reason
– 7.6 Consequentialism
– – Definition
– – What kinds of consequences?
– – Consequences on whom?, on what?
– – – Interested agent
– – – Anthropocentrism
– – Types
– – – Utilitarianism
– – – Selfishness
– – – Rule consequentialism
– – – Negative consequentialism
– – Consequentialism and other moral theories
– – – Deontology
– – – Morality of virtue
– – Criticisms
– – – General criticisms
– – – Criticisms based on neglect of character
– 7.7 Utilitarianism
– – History
– – Fundamental principles
– – – The principle of utility
– – – Consequentialism
– – – The principle of aggregation
– – – Principle of maximization
– – – Impartiality and universalism
– – The utilitarian calculus
– – Different versions of utilitarianism
– – – Bentham’s hedonistic utilitarianism
– – – Indirect utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill
– – – Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism
– – – Richard Mervyn Hare’s preference utilitarianism
– – – Negative utilitarianism
– – – Utilitarianism, the new economy version of well-being
– – – Utilitarianism version of “Social choice”
– – – Total utilitarianism
– – – Average utilitarianism
– – Utilitarianism and deontology
– – Utilitarianism and economics
– – Criticisms
– – – Indifference to inequality
– – The political instrumentalization of fundamental rights
– – – The priority of happiness over justice
– – – Incalculable consequences
– – – Moral relativism
– – – The question of interpersonal utility comparisons
– – – The question of the aggregation of individual utilities
– – – “Sacrificial” aspect
– – – Utilitarianism and “merit”
– – – Impartiality and neglect of the agent
– 7.8 Virtue ethics
– – Difference with consequentialism and deontology
– – Authors
– – – Antiquity and modern times
– – – Contemporary authors
– – – – G. E. M. Anscombe
– – – – Alasdair MacIntyre
– – – – The years 1990-2000
– 7.9 Naturalism
– – Origin and history
– – – Contemporary naturalism
– – Monism and rejection of transcendence
– – – Ontological theses
– – – Epistemological theses
– – Naturalism and natural sciences
– – – Relationship to science
– – – Physicalism
– – – Scientific optimism
– – Naturalism and philosophy of mind
– – Naturalism and ethics
– 7.10 Moral relativism
– – Western philosophy
– – – Antiquity
– – – Middle Ages
– – – Modern times
– – Classical anthropology
– – – Current positions
– – – – Descriptive relativism
– – – – Metaethical relativism
– – – R. M. Hare
– – – Walter Terence Stace
– – – Error theory
– – Criticism of moral relativism
– – – Relativism and world community
– – – Roman Catholic
– – – Contradictions of moral relativism?
– – – Argument of intolerance
– – – Moral innovation
– – – Intervention and inaction
– 7.11 Emotivism
– – Function of moral judgments
– – Distinction between facts and values
8 Animals
– Animal status
– Human use
– Animal wellbeing
– Classification
– Religion
– Philosophy
– – Animal-machine concept
– – Gaia hypothesis
– – Philosophical criticism of the term “animal” and the concept of “animal life”
– Sociology
– – Socio-history of the animal
– – Animal and culture
– – Symbolism
– 8.1 Animal ethics
– – History
– – Ethical theories
– – – Consequentialism
– – – Deontology
– – – Ethics of virtue
– – Link with environmental ethics
– 8.2 Animal rights
– – History
– 8.3 Animal-machine
– – Extension to humans
– – Recent studies in biology
– – Criticism of animal-machine concept
– 8.4 Animal suffering
– – Pain in animals
– – – Evidence of pain
– – Animal welfare or animal rights?
– – Criticisms of the concept of animal welfare
– 8.5 Speciesism
– – Origin of the term
– – Dissemination of the idea
– – Interpretations of the term
– – Arguments for speciesism
– – – Religious arguments
– – – Anthropocentrism
– – – The preference for the group
– – Arguments against speciesism
– – – Anti-speciesism
– – – Biology and theory of evolution
– 8.6 Anti-speciesism
– – Definition
– – History
– – Theoretical and philosophical sources of antispecism
– – – Philosophical critique of the terms “animal” and “property of the man”
– – – Antispecism and humanism
– – Criticisms
– 8.7 Do animals have rights?
– – Arguments in favor of animal rights
– – – Theorists and the legislative aspects of animal rights
– – Criticism of animal rights
– – – Animal interests
– – – Social contract theory
– – – Domestic contract theory
9 Politics
– History
– – Anthropology
– – Middle Eastern States
– – Greek city
– – Middle Ages and modern times
– – End of the 17th century – 20th century
– – From the end of World War II
– Philosophy
– – China
– – Ancient Greece
– – Renaissance and secularization
– – 17th–18th centuries
– Ideology
– – Liberalism
– – Socialism
– – Fascism
– – Neoliberalism
– Organization of power
– – Political regimes according to legitimacy
– – Other typologies of political regimes
– – Political powers
– – Territorial powers
– Art and practice
– – Political life
– – – Mode of accession to power
– – – Modes of political action
– – – Political parties
– – – Political role of the media
– – Exercise of power
– 9.1 Political philosophy
– – Definition
– – History
– – – Antiquity
– – – Middle Ages
– – – Modern era
– – – Contemporary period
– 9.2 Philosophy of law
– – Fundamental questions of philosophy of law
– – Philosophy of law and legal theory
– – Anglo-Saxon tradition
– – Concept
– – – Principles
– – – Targets
– 9.3 Social equality
– – Difficulty of a definition
– – – A polysemic and protean concept
– – – Historical examples
– – Vision and interpretations of social equality
– – – Plato and the Ideal City
– – – Jeremy Bentham and the measurement of social equality
– – – Equality and social justice according to John Rawls
– 9.4 Equality of outcome
– – Equal results in human rights
– – Formal equality, opportunities and results
– – Ideological aspects
– 9.5 Equal opportunities
– 9.6 Reverse discrimination
– – Reverse sexism
– – Reverse Racism
– – – Criticism of the concept
– – Reverse classism
– 9.7 Political equality: Democracy
– – Typology of democracies
– – – Direct democracy
– – – Indirect or representative democracy
– – Democratic institutions
– – – A bulwark against tyranny
– – – – Ostracism
– – – Equal rights between citizens
– – – The division of power
– – – The rotation of rulers
– – – The election or the people as judge
– – – The protection of individual freedoms
– – – A regime that allows its own suppression
– – – Democracy clues today
– – Criticism
– – – Inability of citizens to govern, ignorance and inexperience of the masses
– – – Critique of representative democracy
– – – – Marxist critique of “bourgeois democracy”
– – – – Representative rule, a “liberal oligarchy” rather than a democracy
– – – – Democracy as a framework for the masses
– – – – Democracy and its “watchdog”
– – – – Democratic control of information
– – – Democracy as opposition to any dictatorship, even of the majority
– – – Contemporary crisis of democracy
– – – Democracy as a Western peculiarity
– 9.7.1 Direct democracy
– – History
– – – Athenian democracy
– – – Forms of direct democracy in tribal societies
– – – Middle Ages
– – – – Direct democracy of the Cossacks
– – – – Popular assemblies of medieval towns
– – Philosophers and currents of thought linked to direct democracy
– – – Age of Enlightenment
– – – Anarchists and councilists
– – Instruments of direct democracy
– – – Popular initiative and petition
– – – Referendum and plebiscite
– – – Local assemblies and general assemblies
– – – Draw of representatives
– – Criticisms
– – – Durkheimian criticism
– 9.7.2 Representative democracy
– – Motivations
– – – End of absolutism
– – – Opposition to direct democracy
– – – Sovereignty
– – – The Nation and the Citizen
– – – Inability of people to govern themselves
– – Features
– – – Vote
– – – Representative mandate
– – – John Dewey: the dominance of “concern for the public welfare”
– – Limits
– – – Representativeness
– – – Election mode
– – – Conflicts of interest
– – – Instability
– – – Political parties
– – – Operation costs
– – – Short-termism
– – Criticism
– 9.8 Liberty
– – Definition
– – – Freedom and possibility of choice
– – – Freedom and open or closed choice
– – – Freedom as source of rights and duties
– – – Freedom and responsibility
– – – Formal freedom and real freedom
– – – Freedom-choice and freedom-exercise
– – – Freedom as philosophical principle or socio-political practical freedom
– 9.8.1 Free will
– – History
– – – Augustinian origin of the concept
– – – Scholastic elaboration
– 9.8.2 Negative and positive freedom
– – Negative freedom
– – Positive freedom
– – Freedom and the philosophy
– – Freedom and the law
– – The liberal state
– 9.8.3 Freedom of speech
– – Social phenomenon and individual freedom
– – – Faculty of self-expression, social phenomenon
– – – Right to express oneself, individual freedom
– – Implementation
– – – Extended scope
– – – – Means of direct dissemination
– – – – Implicit modes of expression
– – – – Corollary rules
– 9.8.4 Anarchism
– – Definition and common sense
– – Etymology
– – Precursors of anarchism
– – General principles
– – – Lack of hierarchical authority
– – – Stateless society
– – – “Property is robbery!”
– – Currents and patterns
– – – Typology
– – Criticism
– 9.9 Retributive justice
– – Subtypes
– – Main representatives
– – – Immanuel Kant
– – – Friedrich Hegel
– 9.10 Deterrence theory
– – Classical theory of deterrence
– – Military domain
– – Communication strategy
– – Nuclear deterrence
– – – During the Cold War
– – – Since the Cold War
– – Efficiency and legitimacy
– – – Efficiency
– – – Legitimacy
– 9.11 Reformism
– – Socialism
– – Liberalism
– – Fascism
– 9.12 Civil disobedience
– – Definition of civil disobedience
– – – A conscious and intentional offense
– – – A public act
– – – A collective movement
– – – A peaceful action
– – – One goal: changing the rule
– – – Superior principles
– – Formation of the concept of civil disobedience
– – – From Antiquity to Modern Times
– – – Henry David Thoreau
– – – Mohandas Gandhi
– – – After Nazism: Nuremberg and compulsory disobedience
– – – Martin Luther King
– – – Cesar Chavez
– – – Aaron Swartz
– – Different cases and forms of civil disobedience
– – – Actions at global level
– – – Civic disobedience
– – – Tax resistance
– – Critique of civil disobedience
10 Appearance and reality
– 10.1 Phenomenon
– – Philosophical definitions
– 10.2 Reality
– – Reality: essence and sensitivity
– – Real and/or reality in philosophy
– – – Relationship to existing worlds
– – Reality and real in psychoanalysis
– – Reality in science
– – – Max Planck
– – – Richard Dawkins
– – – The notion of reality in constructivism
– – – Other
– – The reality according to religions
– – – Buddhism
– – – Abrahamic religions
– 10.3 Philosophy of perception
– – Nature of perceptual content
– – – Realistic theories
– – – – Direct realism
– – – – Indirect realism
– – – – “Bipolar” theory
– – – Non-realistic theories
– – – – Phenomenalism
– – – – Adverbialism
– – Relationship between perception and knowledge
– – – Conceptualism
– – – Non-conceptualism
– 10.4 Common-sense realism (Naïve realism)
– – Description
– – Criticism and counter-criticism
– – The recovery of natural realism
– 10.5 Argument from illusion
– – Exemplary case of the Descartes stick
– – Indiscernibility of truthful perceptual experience and illusion
– – Criticism of the argument
– 10.6 Dream argument
– – Argument
– – In ancient times
– – Modernity
– – – Cartesian critique of sensation
– – – Pascalian apologetics
– – In contemporary thought
– 10.7 Hallucination
– – Psychic hallucinations
– – Theories
– – – Neuropsychological
– – – Psychoanalytics
– 10.8 Memory
– – Cognitive psychology
– – Modal model of memory
– – – Work memory (WM)
– – – Baddeley model
– – – Cowan model
– – – Long-term memory: implicit memory and explicit memory
– – – Explicit memory: episodic memory and semantic memory
– – Tulving SPI model
– – Unitary approach
– – Memory and located and distributed cognition
– – Meta memory
– – (Theoretical curve of) Forgetting
– 10.9 Cogito, ergo sum
– – Cartesian cogito
– – – Context
– – – Origin
– – – In the philosophy of Descartes
– – – Scope
– – Posterity
– – – A principle to be placed in its context
– – – A forgotten metaphysics?
– – – Kant
– – – Auguste Comte
– – – Nietzsche, structuralists
– – – Husserl
– – Cogito ergo sum and philosophical concepts
– – – Related philosophical concepts
– – – The subject
– – – Root cause and causation
– – – Final cause
– – – Cogito and substance
– 10.10 Direct and indirect realism
– – Direct realism
– – Indirect realism
– – Difficulties of the two positions
– – – Direct realism
– – – Indirect realism
– – Lowe’s “solution”
– – The great Husserlian advances
– – – Husserl’s idea of ​​phenomenology
– – – The concept of Intentionality
– – – – General features of the concept of intentionality
– – – – Concept structure
– – – Categorical intuition
– 10.11 Phenomenology
– – Phenomenology before Husserl
– – – Kant (1724-1804)
– – – Fichte (1762-1814)
– – – Hegel (1770-1831)
– – – Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
– – Overview of phenomenology
– – – The problem
– – – The object
– – – – The phenomenon
– – – – A phenomenological experience: the work of art
– – – The method
– – – – The phenomenological reduction
– – – – The phenomenological construction
– – – – The phenomenological destruction
– – – The status of phenomenology
– – The great Husserlian advances
– – – Husserl’s idea of ​​phenomenology
– – – The concept of Intentionality
– – – – General features of the concept of intentionality
– – – – Concept structure
– – – Categorial intuition
– 10.12 Phenomenalism
– – Origin and developments
– – Controversies
– 10.13 Causality
– – History
– – – Greek antiquity
– – – – Plato
– – – – Aristotle
– – – Roman period
– – – Modern era
– 10.13.1 Causal realism
– – History of the concept
– – – Greek antiquity
– – – – Plato
– – – – Aristotle
– – – Roman period
– – – Modern era
– – – Contemporary period
– – Philosophy
– – – Principle of causality
– – Causal realism
11 Science
– A generic term for knowledge
– – Broad definition
– – Strict definition
– – Principle of the acquisition of scientific knowledge
– Pluralism definitions
– Scientific disciplines
– Science classification
– – Basic and applied sciences
– – Nomothetic and idiographic sciences
– – Empirical and logico-formal sciences
– – Natural sciences and social sciences
– Scientific reasoning
– – Pure formal type
– – Empirical-formal type
– – Hermeneutic type
– Scientificity and scientific method
– – Scientificness
– – Experimentation
– – Observation
– – Theory and model
– – Simulation
– – Publication and scientific literature
– Discourse on science
– – Epistemology
– – Philosophy of science
– – Science in the service of humanity: progress
– – Questions of epistemology
– – Major epistemological models
– 11.1 Philosophy of science
– – General philosophy of science
– – Need of philosophy and utility
– – The nature of scientific discourse and concepts
– – – Rationalism
– – – Empiricism
– – – Scientific realism and instrumentalism
– – – Constructivism
– – – – Social constructivism
– – – Analysis and reductionism
– – – Scientific realism and metaphysics of science
– – The justification of the scientific results
– – – Ockham’s Razor
– – – Induction
– – – Refutability
– – – Consistency
– – Social responsibility
– – – Criticism of science
– – – Scientific infallibility
– – – Social responsibility
– 11.2 Scientific methods
– – Discovery and theory
– – Evolution of the notion
– – – Aristotle
– – – Alhazen
– – – Roger Bacon
– – – René Descartes
– – – Bayesian reasoning
– – – Scientific positivism
– – – Conventionalism
– – – Verificationism
– – Contexts of justification and discovery
– – Methods in the context of discovery
– – – Observation
– – – Experimentation
– – – Modelization
– – – Numerical simulation
– – – Analogy
– – Complementarity between analytical and synthetic methods
– – – Reductionist analysis
– – – Systemic transdisciplinary synthesis
– – Specific methods
– – – Double-blind method
– – – Replication method
– – – Dual validity assessment
– – – History and idiographic approach
– – – Social sciences
– – Unit issue
– – Universality
– 11.3 Induction (Inductive reasoning)
– – Definition
– – History of the concept
– – Types
– – – Generalization
– – – Statistical syllogism
– – – Simple induction
– – – Argument of an analogy
– – – Causal inference
– – – Prediction
– – Example
– 11.3.1 Problem of induction
– – David Hume
– – Immanuel Kant
– – Classical position of critical rationalism
– – New version and proposed solutions
– 11.4 Falsifiability
– – Falsifiability in context
– – – The falsification
– – – The debate between rationalists and empiricists
– – – The problem of induction
– – – The Bayesian approach
– – – Objectivity and intersubjectivity
– – – Object language, metalanguage and state of affairs
– – – Intersubjectivity and the criterion of truth
– – – The problem of demarcation
– – – The crucial experience
– – – Popperian falsifiability in the scientific method
– – – – Imprecision relating to tests and consecutive scientific results, and heuristics
– – – Falsifiabilism and critical rationalism
– – – – Terminology
– – – – Critical rationalism and Duhem’s thesis
– – – – Sophisticated refutationism
– – Criticisms
– – – Naive refutability
– – – The incommensurability of paradigms
– – – The crucial experience
– – – Feyerabend
– 11.5 Philosophy of information
– – Definition of information
– – Computer science and philosophy
– 11.6 Scientism
– – Principle
– – – Objective and means
– – – The wish and its criticism
– – – Science and values
– – – Morale for a fixed group
– – – – Case of a heterogeneous group
– – – Difficulty of the general case
– – Origins
– – Description
– – Criticism
– – – Philosophical criticism
– – – Epistemological criticism
– – – Liberal criticism
– – – Historical criticism based on the decline of civilizations
– – – Political and technological criticism
– – – Ecological criticism
12 Mind (Philosophy of mind)
– The mind in religions
– – The mind in Christianity
– – The mind in the Kabbalah
– – The mind in Buddhism
– The mind in philosophies
– – Western classical philosophy
– – Philosophy of the contemporary mind
– – Mind philosophy
– The mind in science
– 12.1 Philosophy of mind
– – Historical overview
– – Specific issues
– – – The mind-body problem
– – – The difficult problem of consciousness
– – – The psychology of common sense
– – Major themes
– – – The intentionality of the mind
– – – Consciousness
– – – Free will
– – Main currents
– – – Dualistic solutions
– – – – Dualistic arguments
– – – – Interactionist dualism
– – – Materialism
– – – – Identity theory
– – – – Eliminative materialism
– – – Functionalism
– – – – Computational approach
– – – – Biological approach
– – Mental states
– – – Qualia
– – – Intentionality
– – Thought experiments
– – – China brain
– – – Chinese room
– – – “p-zombie”
– – – The split brain
– 12.2 Philosophy of psychology
– 12.3 Mind–body problem
– – The mind-body problem
– – – Problem statements
– – – – Body and mind are different
– – – – Body and mind interact
– – – – Physical causality suffices
– – – Incompatibility of statements
– – The proposed solutions
– – Dualism
– – – Descartes
– – – – Malebranche and occasionalism
– – – – Leibniz and the pre-established harmony
– – – The dualism of psychoanalysis
– – – Objections against dualism
– 12.4 Philosophical zombie
– – History
– – Principle of indiscernibility
– – David Chalmers’ zombie
– 12.5 Mind–body dualism
– – History of dualism in philosophy
– – – Plato
– – – Aristotle
– – – Neoplatonism
– – – Scholasticism
– – – Descartes and his disciples
– – Typology of dualisms in philosophy
– – – Different types of ontological dualisms
– – – – Substance dualism
– – – – Property dualism
– – – – Attribute dualism
– – – Different dualistic conceptions of causality
– – – – Interactionism
– – – – Epiphenomenalism
– – – – Parallelism
– – – – Occasionalism
– 12.6 Physicalism
– – The physicalism of the Vienna Circle
– – Ontological physicalism
– – – Reductionist physicalisms
– – – Non-reductionist physicalisms
– 12.7 Type-identity theory
– – History
– – Thesis of the type-identity
– – A scientific hypothesis
– 12.7.1 Token-identity theory – Anomalous monism
– – The philosophy historical context
– – The central argument for the anomalous monism
– – Interaction
– – Strict laws
– – The abnormality of the mind
– – – The argument of rationality
– – – The holistic argument
– – Perspective and criticism
– 12.8 Behaviourism
– – History
– – – Theoretical and experimental works
– – – – Watson’s Stimulus-Response Behaviorism
– – – – The Stimulus-Response-Consequence or Operant Behavior Model
– – – – Skinner’s radical behaviorism
– – – – Verbal behaviorism
– – Criticisms of behaviorism
– 12.9 Functionalism
– – Theory
– 12.10 Problem of other minds – Solipsism
– – Definition
– – Doubt in Descartes
– – Berkeley’s empiricist idealism
– – Solipsism in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
– – At Sartre
– – Buddhist solipsism
– – Bertrand Russell
– 12.11 Argument from Analogy
13 Arts
– Definitions
– Areas of art in cultural evolution
– 13.1 Art
– – Can art be defined? (Art and philosophy)
– – Theories of art
– – – Classical theories: aesthetics
– – – Modern theories of art
– – – – A form of interaction and exchange
– – – – Form as dynamic sensitive
– – The major themes of reflection on art
– – – Art and attention to the sensitive
– – – Arts and representation
– – – Imitation and representation
– 13.2 Aesthetics
– – Definition
– – – Etymology and semantics
– – Object
– – History in the West
– – – Antiquity
– – – – Plato
– – – – Aristotle
– – – – Neoplatonism
– – – Middle Ages
– – – – Byzantine theory of image
– – – Renaissance
– – – XVII – XVIII centuries
– – – 18th–19th centuries
– – – – Kant
– – – – Hegel
– – – – In France (19th century)
– – – – In Germany (19th century)
– – – – Nietzsche
– – – Contemporary aesthetics (20th and 21st centuries)
– – – – Phenomenology
– – – – Frankfurt School
– – – – French “Postmodernism”
– – – – Analytical aesthetics
– – – New sciences of art
– – – – Aesthetic sociology
– – – – Psychology of art
– – – – Semiology of art
– – Non-Western aesthetic
– – – Chinese aesthetics
– – – Japanese aesthetic
– – – Arab-Islamic aesthetics
– – – Hindu aesthetic
– 13.2.1 Analytic aesthetics
– – A new aesthetic
– – – Main themes
– – – Relation to tradition
– – – Music related issues
– – History
– – – Wittgenstein and conceptual art
– – – Nelson Goodman: when is there art?
– 13.3 Family resemblance
– – Applications
– 13.4 Artistic idealism
– 13.5 Evolutionary art
– – Basics
– – Art process
– – Non-photorealistic rendering
– 13.6 Art criticism
– – History and concept
– – Art critic
– 13.7 Performance art
– – Presentation
– – History
– – – Origins
– – – Cabaret Voltaire
– – – Maturity
– – – 1960s-1970s
– – – Viennese Actionism
– – – Happening and performance
– – – 1970s-2000s and feminism
– 13.8 Authenticity in art
– – Nominal authenticity
– – Expressive authenticity
– 13.9 Historical authenticity in performance
– – Current names
– – Context
– – History
– – – Ancient instruments
– – Practices and issues
– – – Male voices
– – Reenactment
– – Criticism
– 13.10 Art forgery
– – History
– – – Definitions
– – – – Copy
– – – – Imitate
– – – – Counterfeit
– – – – Falsify
– – – Distinctions
– – – History of fakes
– – Fake detection
– – – The art experts
– – – Scientific techniques
Evolution or progress of philosophy
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing
– Digital: EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-755-3), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-756-0) PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-757-7)
10.11.2022

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Philosophy - Basic Notions, Volume 2

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Prețul produselor este susceptibil la mici variații, datorită variației cursului valutar.
Cărțile în format digital (PDF, EPUB, MOBI pentru Kindle) comandate din acest magazin online se livrează prin email.
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Costurile de transport pentru cărțile tipărite și jucării se vor plăti direct curierului, la primirea pachetului.

The price of products is susceptible to small variations due to the exchange rate fluctuation.
e-Books (PDF, EPUB, MOBI for Kindle) ordered on this online bookstore are delivered by email.
Printed books and toys ordered on this online bookstore are delivered exclusively in Romania.
Orders not paid within 7 days are automatically canceled.
The shipping costs for printed books and toys will be paid directly to the courier upon receipt of the package.

Le prix des produits est susceptible de varier légèrement en raison de la fluctuation du taux de change.
Les livres numériques (PDF, EPUB, MOBI pour Kindle) commandés sur cette librairie en ligne sont livrés par email.
Les livres imprimés et les jouets commandés sur cette librairie en ligne sont livrés exclusivement en Roumanie.
Les commandes non payées dans 7 jours sont automatiquement annulées.
Les frais de livraison pour les livres imprimés seront payés directement au transporteur dès réception du paquet.

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