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Physics Help

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3D-PhysicsThe book is an overview of the major subfields and concepts in physics, including a brief outline of the history of physics and its subfields.

Physics (from Greek from φυσικός (phusikos): natural, from φύσις (fysis): Nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. Physicists study the behaviour and interactions of matter and radiation. Theories of physics are generally expressed as mathematical relations. Well-established theories are often referred to as physical laws or laws of physics; however, like all scientific theories, they are ultimately provisional. Physics is very closely related to the other natural sciences, particularly chemistry. The book is an overview of the major subfields and concepts in physics, including a brief outline of the history of physics and its subfields.

CONTENTS:

Physics Help
– Overview of physics
– – Theories
– – – Central theories
– – – Proposed theories
– – – Fringe theories
– – Concepts
– – Fundamental forces
– – Particles
– – Subfields of physics
– – Methods
– – Tables
– – History
– – Related Fields
Physics
– A brief history of physics
– Future directions
Theoretical physics
– Mainstream theories
– Proposed theories
– Fringe theories
Central theories
Classical mechanics
– Description of the theory
– – Position and its derivatives
– – Forces; Newton’s Second Law
– – Energy
– – Further results
– History
– Further Reading
Thermodynamics
– The Laws of Thermodynamics
– Basics
– – Substances describable by temperature alone
– – Substances describable by temperature and pressure alone
– – Substances describable by temperature, pressure and chemical potential
– – Substances describable by temperature and magnetic field
– – Links
– Thermodynamic Systems
– Thermodynamic State
Statistical mechanics
Electromagnetism
– Mathematical Description
– The Electric Field E
– – Electromagnetic Method
Special relativity
– Motivation for the theory of special relativity
– Invariance of the speed of light
– Lack of an absolute reference frame
– Equivalence of mass and energy
– Simultaneity
– Status of Special Relativity
– The Geometry of Space-time in Special Relativity
– Tests of postulates of special relativity
– Related Topics
General relativity
– Foundations of Relativity and Special Relativity
– Outline of the Theory
– The vierbein formulation of general relativity
– Suggested further reading
Quantum mechanics
– Description of the theory
– Mathematical formulation
– Interactions with other theories of physics
– Applications
– Philosophical debate
– History
– Some quotations
Quantum field theory
– Shortcomings of ordinary quantum mechanics
– Quantum fields
– Wightman axioms
– Suggested reading
– Standard Model
Standard Model
– Content of the Standard Model
– Tests and predictions
– Challenges to the Standard Model
– Further Reading
Fluid mechanics
– See also
Proposed theories
Theory of everything
– Speculative ideas
Grand unification theory
M-theory
– M-theory’s relation to superstrings and supergravity
– Characteristics of M-theory
Loop quantum gravity
– The incompatibility between quantum mechanics and general relativity
– Wilson loops and spin networks
– LQG and quantum cosmology
– Experimental tests of LQG?
– People in LQG and related areas
– Bibliography
Emergence
– Bibliography
Fringe theories
Cold fusion
– References
Dynamic theory of gravity
– Books
Luminiferous aether
– Disadvantages and Critics
– Aether theory postulate experiments
– Timeline
– Classical References
Orgone energy
– Reich’s development of his orgone theories
– Status of Reich’s books
– Bibliography
Reciprocal System of Theory
Steady state theory
Concepts
Matter
– See also
Antimatter
Elementary particle
– See also
Boson
Fermion
Energy
– Kinetic energy
– Heat
– Potential energy
– Chemical energy
– Electrical energy
– Electromagnetic radiation
– Mass
– Further reading
Symmetry
– Symmetry in physics
Motion
Conservation laws
– Philosophy of Conservation Laws
Mass
– Inertial Mass
– Gravitational Mass
– Equivalence of Inertial and Gravitational Masses
– Consequences of Relativity
Momentum
– Momentum in classical mechanics
– Momentum in relativistic mechanics
– Momentum in quantum mechanics
– Figurative use
Angular momentum
Spin
– History
– Application
Dimension
Time
– Measurement of time
– Time in engineering and applied physics
– Time in philosophy and theoretical physics
– Perception of time
– Books
Space
Spacetime
– Reference frame
– – Some general facts about spacetimes
– – Is Spacetime Quantized?
– – Space-time vs. Spacetime
– Related concepts
Length
Velocity
Force
– More depth
– Relationships between force units and mass units
– Imperial units of force
– Conversion between SI and imperial units of force
Torque
Wave
– Examples of waves
– Characteristic properties
– Transverse and longitudinal waves
– – Polarization
– Physical description of a wave
– – Travelling waves
– – The wave equation
Wavefunction
Quantum entanglement
– Formalism
– Entropy
– Ensembles
Harmonic oscillator
– Introduction
– Full Mathematical Definition
– – Simple Harmonic Oscillator
– – Driven Harmonic Oscillator
– – Damped Harmonic Oscillator
– – Damped, Driven Harmonic Oscillator
Magnetism
– Units related to magnetism
– Magnetic Dipoles
– Models of Magnetic Material
– See also
Electricity
– History
– Electric power
– Electric current
– Electrical phenomena in nature
– Terminology Issues
Electromagnetic radiation
Temperature
– Units of Temperature
– Theoretical foundation of temperature
– – Zeroth-Law definition of temperature
– – Second-Law definition of temperature
– Heat capacity
– Negative Temperatures
– Temperature in gases
– Temperature Measurement
Thermodynamic entropy
– Thermodynamic definition of entropy
– – Entropy change in heat engines
– – Entropy as a state function
– Statistical definition of entropy: Boltzmann’s Principle
– – Entropy as a measure of disorder
– – Counting of microstates
– Measuring Entropy
– References
Physical information
– Information
– Classical vs. Quantum Information
– Classical Information
– Physical Information and Entropy
– References
Transition
Phase transition
– Classification of phase transitions
– – Ehrenfest classification
– – Modern classification of phase transitions
– Properties of phase transitions
– – Critical points
– – Symmetry
– – Critical exponents and universality classes
Critical phenomena
Spontaneous symmetry breaking
Superconductivity
– Elementary properties of superconductors
– – Zero electrical resistance
– – Superconducting phase transition
– – Meissner effect
– Theories of superconductivity
– History of superconductivity
– Technological applications of superconductivity
– References
– – Selected papers
Superfluid
Quantum phase transitions
Law of physics
Fundamental force
Gravity
– Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
– – Vector Form
– Newton’s Reservations
– Comparison with electromagnetic force
– Self-gravitating system
– History
– Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity
– Quantum Mechanics and Waves
Weak nuclear force
Strong interaction
Particle
– Standard Model
– – Fundamental fermions
– – – Antiparticles
– – – Quarks
– – Fundamental bosons
– – – Gluons
– – – Electroweak bosons
– – – Higgs boson
– Beyond the Standard Model
– – Grand unification
– – Supersymmetry
– – String theory
– – Preon theory
– Links and References
– – Reference
Atom
– Models of the atom
Atomic nucleus
Proton
Neutron
– Discovery
– Current developments
Electron
– History
– Technical details
– Electricity
– See also
Quark
Photon
– see also
Gluon
W and Z bosons
Graviton
Neutrino
– Neutrino detectors
Particle radiation
Phonon
– Non-interacting phonons
– – Modelling a lattice
– – Lattice waves
– – One-dimensional phonons
– – Dispersion relation
– – Three-dimensional phonons
– – Crystal momentum
– – The phonon gas
– Phonon behavior
– – Acoustic and optical phonons
Roton
Subfields of physics
Astrophysics
Theoretical astrophysics
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics
Computational physics
Condensed matter physics
Cosmology
– Physical cosmology
– Alternative cosmologies
– Philosophical cosmology
– Religious cosmology
Cryogenics
Polymer physics
Optics
– Classical Optics
– Modern Optics
– Other Optical Fields
– Everyday optics
Materials physics
Mechanics
– Disciplines of Mechanics
Acoustic theory
Continuum mechanics
Nuclear physics
Plasma physics
Particle physics
– History of particle physics
– The Standard Model of particle physics
– Experimental particle physics
– Objections against particle physics as reductionism
– Public policy and particle physics
Vehicle dynamics
– Definitions
– Performance Driving Techniques
Methods
Scientific method
– Introduction
– The idealized scientific method
– – Observation
– – Hypothesis
– – Prediction
– – Verification
– – Evaluation
– Other aspects of method
Physical quantity
Measurement
Measuring instrument
Dimensional analysis
– Worked example
– References
Statistics
Tables
List of laws in science
Physical constant
– References
SI
– Origin
– SI writing style
– Notes
SI base unit
– Length (l)
– Mass (m)
– Time (t)
– Electric current (I)
– Thermodynamic temperature (T)
– Amount of substance (n)
– Luminous Intensity (I)
SI derived unit
SI prefix
– Use outside SI
– – Non-SI units
– – Computing
Conversion of units
Physical unit
– Units as dimensions
– Basic and derived units
– Conversion of units
– Prefixes in the SI system
– Calculations with units
History of physics
– History of Physics
– Antiquity
– The Middle Ages & Islamic contibutions to the Sciences
– 16th century
– 17th century
– 18th century
– 19th century
– 20th century
– Developments since 1990
– Developments since 2000
Physicist
List of physicists
Nobel Prize in Physics
– 1900s
– 1910s
– 1920s
– 1930s
– 1940s
– 1950s
– 1960s
– 1970s
– 1980s
– 1990s
– 2000s
Unsolved problems in physics
Related fields
Astronomy
– Divisions of astronomy
– – By subject
– – Ways of obtaining information
– Short history
– Astronomy Tools
Biophysics
– Topics in biophysics and related fields
– Notable biophysicists
Electronics
– Electronic Test Equipment
– Interconnecting Electronic Components
– Passive Components
– Active Components (solid-state)
– Active Components (thermionic)
– Electromechanical Sensors and Actuators
– Thermoelectric devices
– Photoelectric devices
– Antennae etc.
– Analog circuits
– Digital circuits
– Mixed-signal circuits
– Noise
– Electronics Theory
Engineering
– The task of engineering
– – Problem solving
– – Use of computers
– Etymology
– Connections to other disciplines
– Tools
– Methods
Geophysics
Materials science
– Core Topics in Materials Science:
Mathematical physics
Medical physics
Physical chemistry
– Important Physical-chemists
– Literature
Philosophy of physics
License
– GNU Free Documentation License
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/physics-help/
– Digital: EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-625-9), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-626-6), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-627-3)
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