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Health and Drugs – Disease, Prescription and Medication

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3D-HealthInformation about drugs, side effects and abuse. Drug prescription, medication and therapy. online stores to buy drugs. Testing, interaction, administration and treatments for the health care.

Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. It is both an area of knowledge – a science of body systems, their diseases and treatment – and the applied practice of that knowledge.

A drug is any biological substance, synthetic or non-synthetic, that is taken for non-dietary needs. It is usually synthesized outside of an organism, but introduced into an organism to produce its action. That is, when taken into the organisms body, it will produce some effects or alter some bodily functions (such as relieving symptoms, curing diseases or used as preventive medicine or any other purposes).

CONTENTS:

Health
– Exercise
– Hygiene
– Nutrition
– Mental health
– See also
– References
Health science
– Historical overview
– Application of health-related knowledge
– – Health deliveries
– Contemporary themes
– See also
– External links and references
Medicine
– Overview
– History of medicine
– Practice of medicine
– – Health care delivery systems
– – Health care delivery
– – Physician-patient relationship
– – Clinical skills
– Branches of medicine
– Midlevel Practitioner
– Veterinary Medicine
– – Diagnostic specialties
– – Clinical disciplines
– – Interdisciplinary fields
– Medical education
– Legal restrictions
– Criticism
– See also
– References
Drugs
– Drugs used as medicines
– Recreational drugs
– List of drugs
– Footnotes
– See also
Drug diversion
– Drugs that are diverted, in an approximate order of popularity
– Registration of drug suppliers
– References
Drug overdose
– Types
– Symptoms
– Diagnosis
– First aid
– – Depressants
– – Stimulants
– Prevention
– Causes
– References
Drug resistance
Antipyretics
Bisphosphonates
– History
– Chemistry and classes
– Pharmacokinetics
– Mechanism of action
– – Non-nitrogenous
– – Nitrogenous
– Uses
– Side-effects
– Footnotes
Dermatological preparations – Sunscreen
– History
– Mechanism of action
– Sun protection factor
– Melanin
– Possible health effects
– References
Endothelin receptor antagonists
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors
– Use
– History
– Reference
Ointments
Orphan drugs
– Development of orphan drugs
– See also
Patent medicine
– Patent medicines and advertising
– Ingredients and their uses
– – What did the sellers claim as ingredients?
– – What did they actually contain?
– – What did they claim to be good for?
– The end of the patent medicine era
– Surviving consumer products from the patent medicine era
– – Products no longer sold under medicinal claims
– References
Pyrazole
Pyrazolopyrimidines
– Insecticide
– Structure
Drugs in sport
– Reaction from sports organizations
– Notable drug scandals and use in professional sport
– MLB players accused of doping
Sympathomimetics
– See also
Tocolytics
– Types of agents
– Contraindications to Tocolysis
– References
Triptans
– References
Vasodilators
– Natural vasodilators and Drugs that Exploit Them
Erythropoietin (Procrit)
– Discovery and biological role
– EPO as a therapeutic agent
– Erythropoietin as a blood doping agent
– Erythropoietin and Jehovah’s Witnesses
– References
Fluticasone/salmeterol (Advair)
– Formulations
– Side effects
– Footnotes
Vasoconstrictor
– Examples of vasoconstrictors
– See also
Abortifacients
– History
– Present time
– – Herbal abortifacients
– – Pharmaceutical abortifacients
– Pre-implantation labeling controversy
– References
Quinine
– Mechanism of action
– Sources of quinine
– Dosing
– Side effects
– – Quinine and pregnancy
– – Quinine and interactions with other diseases
– Non-medical uses of quinine
– References
– See also
Gin and tonic
– History
– In popular culture
– Similar Drinks
Tonic water
Analgesics
– The major classes
– – Paracetamol and NSAIDs
– – COX-2 inhibitors
– – Opiates and morphinomimetics
– – Specific agents
– Specific forms and uses
– – Combinations
– – Topical or systemic
– – Psychotropic agents
– Addiction
– References
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
– Mode of action
– Examples
– – Salicylates
– – Arylalkanoic acids
– – 2-Arylpropionic acids (profens)
– – N-Arylanthranilic acids (fenamic acids)
– – Pyrazolidine derivatives
– – Oxicams
– – Coxibs
– – Sulphonanilides
– – Others
– Uses
– Pharmacokinetics
– Adverse effects
– – Cardiovascular risk
– – Gastrointestinal ADRs
– – Renal ADRs
– – Photosensitivity
– – During pregnancy
– – Other ADRs
– Chirality
– Newer NSAIDs: selective COX inhibitors
– – COX-2 inhibitors
– – Controversies with COX-2 inhibitors
– – COX-3 inhibitors
– References
– External links
NSAID nephropathy
– Symptoms
– Epidemiology
– Pathophysiology
– – Clinical features: NSAID-Induced hemodynamic deterioration of Renal Function
– – Clinical Features: NSAID Associated Tubulointerstial nephritis
– – Clinical Features: NSAID associated Hypertension
– – Clinical Oddballs
– Treatment
– See also
Aspirin
– Aspirin as genericized trademark
– Discovery
– Synthesis of aspirin
– Mechanism of action
– Indications
– – Dosage
– Toxicity of low-dose aspirin
– Contraindications and warnings
– Common side-effects
– Interactions
– Overdose
– – Symptoms
– – Toxicity
– – Treatment
– – Epidemiology
– Research into cancer prevention
– Footnotes
Diclofenac
– Mechanism of action
– Indications
– – Off label/investigational uses
– Contraindications
– Side effects
– Formulations
– Ecological problems
– Notes and references
Ibuprofen
– Clinical use
– – Off-Label and investigational use
– – Ibuprofen lysine
– Mechanism of action
– Adverse effects
– – Reported adverse drug reactions
– – Photosensitivity
– – Cardiovascular risk
– Stereochemistry
– Human toxicology
– Availability
– See also
– References
Indometacin
– Chemical properties
– Indications
– Contraindications
– Mechanism of action
– Adverse effects
– Necessary Examinations during Longterm Treatment
– Animal Toxicity and Human Overdose
– Usual Dosage Forms
– History
– References
Ketoprofen
Naproxen
– Structure and details
– Adverse effects and warnings
Piroxicam
– Mechanism of action
– Adverse effects
– Footnotes
Rofecoxib
– Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
– The COX Enzyme
– Adverse drug reactions
– Withdrawal from the market
– – VIGOR study
– – – NEJM controversy
– – Alzheimer’s studies
– – APPROVe study
– – Other studies
– – Withdrawal
– – Litigation
– – – Political impact of Vioxx litigation in America
– – Other COX-2 inhibitors
– Miscellaneous
– References
Opioids
– Pharmacology
– Uses
– – Clinical use
– – – United States
– – Recreational use and abuse
– – – History
– Adverse effects
– – Overdose
– – Tolerance, Dependence, Addiction, and Abuse
– – Tolerance
– – Dependence and withdrawal issues
– Examples of opioids
– – Endogenous opioids
– – Opium alkaloids
– – Semisynthetic derivatives
– – Synthetic opioids
– – – Phenylheptylamines
– – Piperanilides
– – – Phenylpiperidines
– – – Diphenylpropylamine derivatives
– – – Benzomorphan derivatives
– – – Oripavine derivatives
– – – Morphinan derivatives
– – – Others
– – Opioid antagonists
– See also
– References
Mu-opioid agonists
Heroin
– History
– Usage and effects
– Production and trafficking
– – Manufacturing
– – History of heroin traffic
– – Dr Alfred W. McCoy’s account of the history of the heroin trade
– – Trafficking
– Risks of non-medical use
– Withdrawal
– Heroin prescription
– Drug interactions
– Culture
– See also
– References
– Literature
Morphine
– Medical use
– – Administration
– – Uses
– – Contraindications
– Pharmacology
– Legal classification
– History and abuse
– See also
Natural opium alkaloids
Codeine
– Indications
– Controlled substance
– Pharmacokinetics
– Pharmacology
– Adverse effects
– Recreational use
– Footnotes
– See also
Papaverine
– Uses
– Side effects
– Formulations and Tradenames
– References
Semisynthetic opioids
Oxycodone
– Chemical structure
– Bioavailability
– Medical use
– History
– Abuse
– Manufacturer and Patents
– Chemistry
– Regulation
– – Regulation in the USA
– – Regulation in Australia
– Advertising
– References
Synthetic opioids – Anileridine
– Administration
– Pharmacokinetics
Dextropropoxyphene
– Indications
– – Analgesia
– – Opioid withdrawal
– Adverse effects
– Toxicologic Mechanism
– Recreational use
– References
Endorphins
– History
– Molecular biology
– Mechanism of action
– Activity
– References
Fentanyl
– Synthesis
– Analogues
– Therapeutic use
– Illicit use
– References
– See also
Hydrocodone
– Overdosing risks
– Alcohol
– Commercial medications containing hydrocodone
– – Abbott Laboratories
– – UCB Pharma
– – Watson Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
– – Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals
Laudanum
– History
– Featurings in fiction
– – In Literature
– – In Film
– – In Television
– Today’s status
Methadone
– History
– Pharmacology
– Clinical use
– – Opioid addiction
– – Chronic pain
– – Efficacy
– Abuse
– Similar drugs
– Notes
Narcotic
– Administration
– Effects
– Hazards
– Tolerance and dependence
– See also
Opium
– Harvesting opium
– Opium preparation
– Seed capsules
– Chemical properties and physiological effects
– Production today
– History of opium
– – Ancient usage
– – Modern usage
– – Modern prohibition
– Medicinal uses
– Literature
– See also
Pethidine
– Mode of action
– Pharmacokinetics
– Interactions
– Adverse effects
– References
Tramadol
– Mechanism of action
– Metabolism
– Adverse effects
– Dependence
– Proprietary preparations
– Often used to treat
– Trivia
– References
Paracetamol
– History
– Available forms
– Mechanism of action
– Metabolism
– Comparison with NSAIDs
– Toxicity
– – Mechanism of toxicity
– – Toxic dose
– – Risk factors for toxicity
– – Natural history
– – Diagnosis
– – Treatment
– – – Initial measures
– – – Acetylcysteine
– – Prognosis
– Danger to animals
– November 2006 United States recall of generic paracetamol
– References
Anaesthetics
Local anesthetics
– Mechanism of action
– Undesired effects
– – Central nervous system
– – Cardiovascular system
– – – Treatment of overdose
– – Hypersensitivity/Allergy
– – Methemoglobinemia
– Local anesthetics in clinical use
– References
– See also
Cocaine
– History
– – The coca leaf
– – Isolation
– – Medicalization
– – Popularization
– – Prohibition
– – Modern usage
– Pharmacology
– – Appearance
– – Forms of cocaine
– – – Cocaine sulfate
– – – Freebase
– – – Crack cocaine
– – Modes of administration
– – – Chewed/eaten
– – – Insufflation
– – – Injected
– – – Smoked
– – – Oral
– – Mechanism of action
– – Metabolism and excretion
– – Effects and health issues
– – – Acute
– – – Chronic
– – Cocaine as a local anesthetic
– Cocaine trade
– – Production
– – Trafficking and distribution
– – – “Black cocaine”
– Addiction
– – Treatment
– – – GVG
– – – GBR 12909
– – – Venlafaxine
– – – Coca teas
– Legal status
– Usage
– – In the United States
– – – Overall usage
– – – Usage among youth
– – – Availability
– References
– See also
– Further reading
Lidocaine
– History
– Pharmacokinetics
– Pharmacology
– – Anesthesia
– – Antiarrhythmia
– Clinical use
– – Indications
– – Contraindications
– – Adverse drug reactions
– – Dosage forms
– References
Chloroform
– Chloroform
– Properties
– Structure
– Supplementary data page
– Related compounds
– History
– Production
– Uses
– Safety
Diethyl ether
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– History
– Anesthetic use
– Recreational use
– Precautions
Ketamine
– History
– Medical use
– – Experimental Antidepressant Use
– – Treatment of addiction
– Neuropharmacology
– Recreational use
– – Illicit sale
– – Methods of use
– – Psychological effects
– Ketamine in the media
– Street Slang
– References
– See also
Nitrous oxide
– Nitrous oxide
– Properties
– Structure
– Thermodynamic data
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Chemistry
– History
– Manufacture
– Uses
– – Inhalant effects — laughing gas
– – Aerosol propellant
– – Rocket motors
– – Internal combustion engine
– Safety
– Nitrous oxide in an atmosphere
Phencyclidine
– Chemistry and pharmacology
– – Toxicology
– Medical and veterinary use
– Recreational use
– – Biochemical action
– – Method of absorption
– – Effects
– – References in Popular Culture
– See also
– References
Anti-diabetic drugs
– Types of Diabetes
– Disease Management
– Blood tests
– Sulfonylureas
– Meglitinides
– Biguanides
– Thiazolidinediones
– Alpha glucosidase inhibitors
– Incretin mimetic
– DPP-4 inhibitors
– Amylin analogue
– Experimental agents
– Insulin by mouth
– Herbal extracts
– References
– Footnotes
Diabetes mellitus
– ICD-10
– ICD-9
– MedlinePlus
– eMedicine
– Types of Diabetes
– Disease Management
– Blood tests
– Terminology
– History
– Causes & types
– – Glucose metabolism
– – Type 1 diabetes mellitus
– – Type 2 diabetes mellitus
– – Gestational diabetes
– – Other types
– – Genetics
– Diagnosis
– – Signs and symptoms
– – Diagnostic approach
– – Diagnostic criteria
– Complications
– – Acute
– – Chronic
– Treatment and management
– Curing diabetes
– Prevention
– Public health and policy
– Epidemiology and statistics
– References
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
– Examples and differences
– Role in clinical use
– Mechanism of action
– Dosing
– Side effects & precautions
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
– References
Insulin therapies
– Discovery and characterization
– Nobel Prizes
– Structure and production
– Actions on cellular and metabolic level
– Regulatory action on blood glucose
– Signal transduction
– Hypoglycemia
– Diseases and syndromes
– As a medication
– – Principles
– – Modes of administration
– – Dosage and timing
– – Types
– – Abuse
– Timeline
– See also
– References
– Footnotes
Meglitinides
– Drugs
– Side-effects
Sulfonylureas
– Drugs in this class
– Chemistry
– Pharmacology
– – Method of action
– – Pharmacokinetics
– Uses
– Side-effects and cautions
– History
– See also
– References
Thiazolidinediones
– Mode of action
– Members of the class
– Uses
– Side effects and contraindications
Anti-inflammatory agents
– Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
– Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
– Ice treatment
– Anti-inflammatory Foods
Glucocorticoids
– Effects
– Mode of action
– Pharmacologic properties
– Physiologic replacement of glucocorticoid
– Medical uses and effects of high dose glucocorticoids
– – Immunosuppressive mechanism
– – Antiinflammatory effects
– – Side effects
– Adrenal suppression and withdrawal
– See also
Cortisol
– Synthesis
– Physiology
– Pharmacology
– Diseases
– References
– – Printed
Antianginals
Beta blockers
– Pharmacology
– – 2-Receptor antagonism
– – Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
– – +-1-Receptor antagonism
– – Other effects
– Clinical use
– – Congestive heart failure
– – Anxiety and performance enhancement
– Adverse effects
– Examples of beta blockers
– – Historical
– – Non-selective agents
– – 21-Selective agents
– – Mixed +-1/2-adrenergic antagonists
– – 22-Selective agents
– Comparative information
– – Pharmacological differences
– – Indication differences
– References
– Footnotes
Calcium channel blockers
– Mechanism of action
– List of calcium channel blockers
– – Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers
– – Phenylalkylamine calcium channel blockers
– – Benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers
– – Other
– Other drugs with similar uses
Amlodipine (Norvasc)
– Indications
– Cautions
– Contra-indications
– Side effects
– Dose
– Salts
– Patent Loss
Nitroglycerin
– History
– Instability and desensitization
– Detonation
– Preparation
– – Manufacturing
– Medical use
– See also
PETN
– Properties
– As a pollutant in the environment
– Production
– References
Antiarrhythmic agents
– Vaughan Williams antiarrhythmic classification
– – Class I agents
– – – Class Ia agents
– – – Class Ib agents
– – – Class Ic agents
– – Class II agents
– – Class III agents
– – Class IV agents
– – Class V agents
– References
Cardiac glycosides
Digoxin
– Actions
– Mechanism of action
– Clinical use
– Adverse effects
– Other information
– In the news
– See also
– References
– Further reading
Adenosine
– Pharmacological effects
– – Anti-inflammatory Properties
– – Action on the heart
– – Dosage
– – Drug Interactions
– – Contraindications
– – Side effects
– Metabolism
Amiodarone
– History
– Dosing
– Mechanism of action
– Indications for use
– – Ventricular fibrillation
– – Ventricular tachycardia
– – Atrial fibrillation
– Contraindications
– Metabolism
– – Interactions with other drugs
– Excretion
– Side effects
– – Thyroid
– – Eye
– – Gastrointestinal system
– – Skin
– – Lung
– See also
– References
Antiasthmatic drugs – Asthma
– ICD-10
– ICD-9
– OMIM
– DiseasesDB
– MedlinePlus
– eMedicine
– History
– Signs and symptoms
– Diagnosis
– – Differential diagnosis
– Pathophysiology
– – Bronchoconstriction
– – Bronchial inflammation
– – Pathogenesis
– – Asthma and sleep apnea
– – Asthma and gastro-esophageal reflux disease
– Treatment
– – Relief medication
– – Prevention medication
– – Long-acting 22-agonists
– – Emergency treatment
– – Alternative and complementary medicine
– Prognosis
– Epidemiology
– – Socioeconomic factors
– – Asthma and athletics
– References
Bronchodilators
Epinephrine
– Actions in the body
– Pharmacology
– Terminology
– References
Salbutamol
– Clinical use
– Mode of action
– Adverse effects
– Other brand names
– References
Theophylline
– History
– Side effects
Mast cell stabilizers
Anticholinergics
– Effects
– Plant sources
– Pharmaceuticals
Deliriants
– Pharmacological classes of deliriants, and their general subjective effects
– – Tropanes
– – Antihistaminics
– See also
3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate
– Development and military use
– Sources other than military
– Physiochemical characteristics
– – Detection and protection
– – Toxicokinetics
– – Toxicity
– – Toxicodynamics (mechanism of action)
– – Clinical effects
– – Central effects
– – Time course of effects
– – Differential diagnosis
– – Signs and symptoms
– – Anticholinergics
– – Medical management
– – History and toxicity of physostigmine
– – Triage
– – Return to duty
Atropine
– Physiological effects and uses
– – Ophthalmic use
– – Resuscitation
– – Secretions and bronchoconstriction
– – Antidote for organophosphate poisoning
– – Side effects and overdoses
– Chemistry and pharmacology
– History
– Natural sources
Scopolamine
Nicotinic antagonists
– Structure
– Opening the channel
– Effects
– Roles
– Subunits
– References
Tobacco
– Scientific classification
– History
– Etymology
– Cultivation
– – Top Ten Tobacco Producers – 2005 (million metric ton)
– – Sowing
– – Transplanting
– – Harvest
– – Pests
– – Curing
– – Post-cure processing
– Other Types
– – Aromatic Fire-cured
– – Brightleaf tobacco
– – White burley
– – Shade tobacco
– – Perique
– – Oriental Tobacco
– Tobacco products
– – Snuff
– – – Chewing tobacco
– – – Snus
– – Gutka
– – Creamy snuff
– – Tobacco water
– References
– Bibliography
– See also
– Notes
Curare
– Curare and anaesthesia
– Plants from which primary components of curare can be extracted
Anticoagulant
– As medications
– – Vitamin K antagonists
– – Heparin and derivative substances
– – Direct thrombin inhibitors
– Anticoagulants outside the body
Heparin
– Heparin structure
– – Abbreviations
– – Three-dimensional structure
– Medical use
– – History
– – Administration
– – Adverse reactions
– – Treatment of overdose
– – Mechanism of action
– – Heparin gel
– Other uses/information
– References
Warfarin
– Mechanism of action
– Uses
– – Medical use
– – Pesticide use
– Side-effects
– Pharmacology
– – Pharmacokinetics and antagonism
– – Pharmacogenomics
– – Loading regimens
– – Interactions and contraindications
– History
– Other coumarins
– References
Anticonvulsants
– Aldehydes
– Aromatic allylic alcohols
– Barbiturates
– Benzodiazepines
– Bromides
– Carbamates
– Carboxamides
– Fatty acids
– Fructose derivatives
– Gaba analogs
– Hydantoins
– Oxazolidinediones
– Propionates
– Pyrimidinediones
– Pyrrolidines
– Succinimides
– Sulfonamides
– Triazines
– Ureas
– Valproylamides (amide derivatives of valproate)
Barbiturates
– Medical uses
– Recreational use
– Other non-therapeutical use
– History
– Poisoning
– Famous users
Phenobarbital
– History
– Indications
– Side effects
– Contraindications
– Overdose
– – ICD-10
– – eMedicine
– Pharmacokinetics
– Veterinary uses
– Heaven’s Gate
– Footnotes
Benzodiazepines
– Pharmacology
– Members
– Effects/Uses
– Side effects
– Tolerance
– Dependence
– Abuse Potential
– Intoxication
– Legal status
– History
– See also
– References
Alprazolam
– History
– Pharmacology
– Pharmacokinetics
– Indications
– – Availability
– Packaging
– – Alprazolam
– – Xanax XR
– Side effects
– Contraindications
– – Patients at a High Risk for Abuse and Dependence
– Recreational use
– Legal status
Diazepam
– Benzodiazepine
– History
– Pharmacokinetics
– Indications
– – Veterinary uses
– Dosage
– – Adult dosage recommendations
– – Pediatric dosage recommendations
– – Availability
– Side effects
– Interactions
– Contraindications
– – Special caution needed
– – Patients at a high risk for abuse and dependence
– Withdrawal
– Overdose
– Recreational use
– Popular culture references
– Legal status
– Physical properties
– References
– Footnotes
Flunitrazepam
– History
– Pharmacology
– Medical uses
– Abuse Potential
– – Drug-facilitated Sexual Assault
– – Drug-facilitated Robbery
– – Recreational drug
– Side effects
– Legal status
– Street Terms
– Footnotes
Lorazepam
– Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics
– Indications
– Dosage
– Disadvantages
– Abuse
– Legal status
– References
Midazolam
– Pharmacology
– Indications
– Dosage
– Side effects and abuse potential
– Interactions
– Contraindications
– Overdose
– Legal status
Carboxamides
Gamma-aminobutyric acid
– Properties
– Action and receptors
– Synthesis
– Pharmacology
Potassium bromide
– Properties
– Structure
– Related compounds
– Chemical properties
– Preparation
– Uses
– – Medical and Veterinary
– – Optics
Antidotes
– Poison and Toxic Signs
Poison
– Terminology
– – Lay use
– Warning symbols
– Uses of poison
– Biological poisoning
– Poisoning in humans
– – Children
– Poisoning management
– – General first aid
– – Initial medical management
– – Decontamination
– – Antidotes
– – Poison/Drug – Antidote
– – Enhanced excretion
– – Further treatment
– Types of poisons
– References
– See also
Antihistamines
– Pharmacology
– Clinical use of antihistamines
– – Indications
– – Adverse drug reactions
– First-generation H1-receptor antagonists
– – Ethylenediamines
– – Ethanolamines
– – Alkylamines
– – Piperazines
– – Tricyclics
– – Common structural features of classical antihistamine
– Second-generation H1-receptor antagonists
– – Systemic
– – Topical
– – Common structural features of non-sedating antihistamines
– Third-generation H1-receptor antagonists
– – Systemic
– Other agents
– – Inhibitors of histamine release
– – H2-receptor antagonists
– – H3- and H4-receptor antagonists
– – – H3-receptors antagonists
– – – H4-receptors antagonists
– – Other agents with antihistaminergic activity
– See also
– References
H2-receptor antagonists
– History and development
– Pharmacology
– Clinical use of H2-antagonists
– – Indications
– – Adverse drug reactions
– – Drug interactions
– Examples
– References
Antihypertensive agents
– Available drugs
– – Diuretics
– – Antiadrenergics
– – Calcium channel blockers
– – ACE inhibitors
– – Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
– – Aldosterone antagonists
– – Vasodilators
– – Centrally acting adrenergic drugs
– – – Adrenergic neuron blockers
– – Herbals provoking hypotension
– Choice
– References
ACE inhibitors
– Clinical use
– Effects of ACE inhibitors
– Adverse effects
– Examples of ACE inhibitors
– – Sulfhydryl-containing ACE inhibitors
– – Dicarboxylate-containing ACE inhibitors
– – Phosphonate-containing ACE inhibitors
– – Naturally occurring
– Comparative information
– Contraindications and precautions
– Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
– – Use in combination with ACE inhibitors
– History
– References
Alpha blockers
– Indications
– Examples of alpha blockers
– Adverse effects and interactions
– References
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist
– Mode of action
– Uses
– Adverse effects
– Members
– References
Diuretics
– Uses
– Mechanism of action
– – Classification of common diuretics and their mechanisms of action
– – – Agent Group = Examples = Mechanism
Aldosterone
– Aldosterone and the kidney
– – Control of aldosterone release
– References
Loop diuretics
– Mechanism of action
– Clinical use
– Loop diuretic resistance
– Adverse effects
– Examples of loop diuretics
– References
Osmotic diuretics – Sorbitol
– External links
– References
Potassium-sparing diuretics
– References
Thiazides
– Mechanism of hypokalemia
– External links
Antimicrobials
– Main classes
– – Antibiotics
– – Essential oils
– – Cations and elements
– Reference
Antibiotics
– History
– Classes of antibiotics
– – Class: Aminoglycosides
– – Class: Carbacephem
– – Class: Carbapenems
– – Class: Cephalosporins (First generation)
– – Class: Cephalosporins (Second generation)
– – Class: Cephalosporins (Third generation)
– – Class: Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
– – Class: Glycopeptides
– – Class: Macrolides
– – Class: Monobactam
– – Class: Penicillins
– – Class: Polypeptides
– – Class: Quinolones
– – Class: Sulfonamides
– – Class: Tetracyclines
– – Class: Others
– Production
– Side effects
– Antibiotic misuse
– Antibiotic resistance
– Beyond antibiotics
– References
Aminoglycoside antibiotics
– Mechanism of action
– Spectrum of activity
– Toxicity
– Routes of administration
– Specific Agents
Streptomycin
– History
– Uses
Beta-lactam antibiotics
– Clinical use
– Mode of action
– Modes of resistance
– Common 2-lactam antibiotics
– – Penicillins
– – – Narrow spectrum penicillins
– – – Narrow spectrum penicillinase-resistant penicillins
– – – Moderate spectrum penicillins
– – – Broad spectrum penicillins
– – – Extended Spectrum Penicillins
– – Cephalosporins
– – – First generation cephalosporins
– – – Second generation cephalosporins
– – – Second generation cephamycins
– – – Third generation cephalosporins
– – – Fourth generation cephalosporins
– – Carbapenems
– – Monobactams
– – Beta-lactamase inhibitors
– Adverse effects
– – Adverse drug reactions
– – Allergy/hypersensitivity
– References
Carbapenem antibiotics
Cephalosporin antibiotics
– History
– Mode of action
– Clinical use
– – Adverse effects
– Classification
– – First generation
– – Second generation
– – Third generation
– – Fourth generation
– – Yet to be classified
– References
– See also
AGG01
– References
Amoxicillin
– Mode of action
– Microbiology
– – Susceptible Gram-positive organisms
– – Susceptible Gram-negative organisms
– – Resistant organisms
– Formulations
– Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid
– Side Effects
– Proprietary preparations
– Trivia
– References
Ampicillin
– Mechanism of action
– Indications
– – Use in research
Co-amoxiclav
– Dosage
– Side effects
– Veterinary use
– References
Penicillin
– History
– Developments from penicillin
– Mode of action
– Variants in clinical use
– – Benzathine benzylpenicillin
– – Benzylpenicillin (penicillin G)
– – Phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V)
– – Procaine benzylpenicillin
– Semi-synthetic penicillins
– – Narrow spectrum penicillinase-resistant penicillins
– – Moderate spectrum penicillins
– – Extended Spectrum Penicillins
– – Penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors
– Adverse effects
– – Adverse drug reactions
– – Allergy/hypersensitivity
– See also
– References
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics
– Mechanism
– Adverse effects
– Resistance
– Generations
– – 1st generation
– – 2nd generation
– – 3rd generation
– – 4th generation
– – In development
– Veterinary use
Ciprofloxacin
– Activity
– Label information
– Interactions
– Contraindications
– Dosing
– Business aspects
– Footnotes
Glycopeptide antibiotics
Vancomycin
– Pharmacology and chemistry
– Clinical use
– – Indications
– – Adverse effects
– – Dosing considerations
– – – Intravenous vs oral administration
– – – Red man syndrome
– – Therapeutic drug monitoring
– Toxicity
– – Nephrotoxicity
– – Ototoxicity
– – Interactions with other nephrotoxins
– Antibiotic resistance
– References
– See also
Glycylcycline antibiotics
– History
– Mechanism of Action
– Mechanisms of Resistance
– Side Effects and Contraindications
– References
Lincosamide antibiotics
– Resistance
– Pharmacodynamics
– Further reading
Nitroimidazole antibiotics
– References
Polyketide antibiotics
– Examples
– Biosynthesis
Macrolide antibiotics
– Members
– – Commonly prescribed Macrolides
– – Developmental Macrolides
– – Ketolides
– – Non-antibiotic macrolides
– – Toxic macrolide
– Uses
– Mechanism of action
– Resistance
Clarithromycin
– History
– Potential new uses
– Available forms
– Mechanism of action
– Pharmacokinetics
– Metabolism
– Side effects
– Special precautions
– Contraindications
– External links
Erythromycin
– History
– Available forms
– Mechanism of action
– Pharmacokinetics
– Metabolism
– Side-effects
– Contraindications
– References
– External links
Tetracycline antibiotics
– History
– Examples of tetracyclines
– Indication
– Administration
– Cautions
– Contraindications
– Side effects
– Mechanism and resistance
– References
– See also
Doxycycline
– Indicated uses
– Cautions and Side effects
– Experimental applications
– References and notes
Tetracycline
– History
– Cautions, Contraindications, Side effects
– Indication
– Other uses
Polymyxin antibiotics
Polypeptide antibiotics – Lantibiotics
– History
– Classification
– Mechanism of action
– Application
– References
Rifamycin antibiotics
– The bacterium
– The classic rifamycin drugs
– The rifamycin derivatives
– Currently available rifamycins
– References
Sulfonamide antibiotics
– History
– Preparation
– Side Effects
– See also
Antibiotic resistance
– Causes
– Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
– Resistant pathogens
– Antibiotic resistance and the role of animals
– Alternatives to antibiotics
– – Prevention
– – Vaccines
– – Phage therapy
– Development of newer antibiotics
– Applications
– References
Arsphenamine
– References
Prontosil
Sulfone
Antifungals
– List of antifungal drugs
– – Polyene antibiotic
– – Imidazole and triazole
– – Allylamines
– – Echinocandin
– – Others
– Dandruff shampoos
Garlic
– Scientific classification
– Biology and chemistry
– Uses
– – Culinary use
– – Medicinal use
– History
– – Superstition and mythology
– Classification
– Preservation
– Caution
– Trivia
– References
– Notes
Antiparasitic agents
– Antinematodes
– Anticestodes
– Antitrematodes
– Antiamoebics
– Antiprotozoals
Anthelmintics
– References
Antiprotozoal agent
Antimalarial agents
Antiseptics
– Use in surgery
– How it works
– Some common antiseptics
– See also
– References
Iodine
– Physical properties
– Miscellaneous
– Selected isotopes
– Occurrence on earth
– Uses
– Isotopes
– Notable characteristics
– Descriptive Chemistry
– History
– Notable inorganic iodine compounds
– Stable iodine in biology
– – Dietary intake
– – Iodine deficiency
– – Toxicity of Iodine
– Radioiodine and biology
– – Radioiodine and the thyroid
– – Radioiodine and the kidney
– Non-hormone-related applications of iodine
– Precautions for stable iodine
– Clandestine Use
– References
Alcohol
– Structure
– – Primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols
– – Methanol and ethanol
– – Automotive
– – Scientific, medical, and industrial
– – Cuisine
– Effects of alcohol on the body
– Alcohol and politics
– Sources
– Nomenclature
– – Systematic names
– – Etymology
– Physical and chemical properties
– Toxicity
– Preparation of alcohols
– – Laboratory
– – Industrial
– Reactions of alcohols
– – Deprotonation
– – Nucleophilic substitution
– – Dehydration
– – Esterification
– – Oxidation
– References
Boric acid
– Boric acid
– General
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Preparation
– Properties
– Uses
– References
Calcium hypochlorite
– Preparation
– Properties
– Uses
Hydrogen peroxide
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– History
– Uses
– – Industrial applications
– – Domestic uses
– – Storage
– – Use as propellant
– – Therapeutic use
– Physical properties
– Chemical properties
– – Oxidant – Oxidation potential, V
– – Decomposition
– – Redox reactions
– – Formation of peroxide compounds
– – Alkalinity
– Manufacture
– Concentration
– Hazards
– References
Listerine
– History
– Safety
– Trivia
Naphthalene
– Naphthalene
– Properties
– Hazards
– History
– Structure and reactivity
– Production
– Incidence in nature
– Uses
– Health effects
– References
Natron
Phenol
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Phenols
– Properties
– Production
– Uses
– References
Salicylic acid
– Medicinal and cosmetic uses
– Other uses
– See also
– Footnotes
Silver nitrate
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
Sodium chloride
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Crystal structure
– Biological importance
– Salt throughout history
– In religion
– Production and use
– – Synthetic Uses
– – Solubility of NaCl in various solvents (g NaCl / 100 g of solvent at 25 C)
– – Flavour enhancer
– – Biological uses
– – De-icing
– – Additives
– Other facts
– See also
Sodium hypochlorite
– Properties
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Production
– Packaging and sale
– Uses
– Mechanism of action
– Cautions
– Bibliography
Antivirals
– History
– Development of antiviral drugs
– Antiviral drug design strategies
– See also
Antiretroviral drugs
– Classes of antiretroviral drugs
– – Fixed dose combinations
– – Synergistic enhancers
– Combination therapy
– Current treatment guidelines
– Concerns
– Responses to Treatment in Older Adults
– Limitations of antiretroviral drug therapy
– Adverse effects
– See also
– References
Protease inhibitor
– Antiretrovirals
– References
Neuraminidase inhibitors
– Reference
Oseltamivir
– Clinical use
– – Indications and dosage
– – – Use in avian influenza
– – – Co-administration with probenecid
– – Dosage forms
– – Adverse effects
– – – Neurological effects
– Mode of action
– Resistance
– Pandemic fears
– – U.S. Government policy and oseltamivir
– – Personal stockpiling of oseltamivir
– Veterinary use
– Chemical synthesis
– – Commercial syntheses
– – 2006 Corey synthesis
– – Production shortage/shikimic acid
– References
– See also
Zanamivir
– Development
– Limitations
– Commercial difficulties
– Developments from zanamivir
– References
Interferon
– The discovery of interferon
– Types of interferon
– – Type I IFN
– – Type II IFN
– – Type III IFN
– The signaling pathway of interferons
– Sources and functions of inteferons
– – Type I interferons
– – Type II interferons
– Viral induction of interferons
– Pharmaceutical uses
– Also See
– References
– Further reading
Disinfectants
– Properties
– Types of disinfectants
– – Alcohols
– – Aldehydes
– – Halogens
– – Oxidising agents
– – Phenolics
– – Quaternary ammonium compounds
– – Other
– Relative effectiveness of disinfectants
– Home Disinfectants
– References
– See also
Bleach
– Types of bleach
– How bleaches work
– Hazards
– Bibliography
– References
Chlorine dioxide
– Uses
– Preparation
Ethanol
– Properties
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– History
– Physical properties
– Chemistry
– Production
– – Ethylene hydration
– – Fermentation
– – Purification
– – Prospective technologies
– Ethanol
– – Denatured alcohol
– – Hydrous and anhydrous ethanol
– – Absolute ethanol
– Feedstocks
– Use
– – As a fuel
– – Alcoholic beverages
– – Chemicals derived from ethanol
– – Other uses
– Metabolism and toxicology
– – BAC (mg/dL), Symptoms
– Hazards
– References
Hypochlorous acid
– Properties
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Formation
– Chemical reactions
– Uses
– Safety
– References
Ozone
– Properties
– Thermodynamic data
– Hazards
– Physical properties
– Chemistry
– Ozone in Earth’s atmosphere
– – Ozone layer
– – Low level ozone
– – – Ozone as a greenhouse gas
– Ozone and health
– – Ozone in air pollution
– – Physiology of ozone
– – Safety
– Artificial production
– – Industrial production
– – Laboratory production
– Applications
– – Industrial applications
– – Consumer applications
– – Pharmaceutical applications
– References
Potassium permanganate
– Properties
– Thermodynamic data
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– History
– Uses
– – Chemical applications
– – As an oxidant in organic synthesis
– – Acids and KMnO4
– – Biomedical uses
– – Miscellaneous uses
– Hazards
– References
Quaternary ammonium cation
– See also
Preservatives
Edible salt
– History of edible salt
– Forms of edible salt
– – Unrefined salt
– – Refined salt
– – Table salt
– Health effects
– Recommended intake
– Labeling
– – Campaigns
– – Salt substitutes
– See also
– References
– Further reading
Potassium nitrate
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Description
– Manufacture
– Applications
– References in Literature
– See also
Sodium nitrate
– Physical
– Thermochemistry
– Safety
– SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.
– Applications
Sulfur dioxide
– Properties
– Structure
– Thermodynamic data
– Safety data
– Related compounds
– Preparation
– Structure and bonding
– Uses
– Emissions
– Appendix: temperature dependence of aqueous solubility
Antiobesity agents
– Mechanisms of action
– Side effects
– Limitations of current knowledge
– Future developments
– Reference
Anorectics
– History and initial uses
– Public health concerns
– Currently marketed appetite suppressants
– See also
Fen-phen
Ephedra
– Chemistry
– Effects
– Safety
– Regulatory history in the United States
– In professional sports
– References
Antiparkinsonian agents
– ICD-10
– ICD-9
– DiseasesDB
– MedlinePlus
– eMedicine
– History
– Symptoms
– – Motor symptoms
– – Non-motor symptoms
– – – Mood disturbances
– – – Cognitive disturbances
– – – Sleep disturbances
– – – Sensation disturbances
– – – Autonomic disturbances
– Diagnosis
– Descriptive epidemiology
– Related diseases
– Pathology
– Causes of Parkinson’s disease
– – Genetic
– – Toxins
– – Head trauma
– – Drug-induced
– Treatment
– – Levodopa
– – Dopamine agonists
– – MAO-B inhibitors
– – Surgical interventions
– – Speech therapies
– – Physical exercise
– – Methods undergoing evaluation
– – – Gene therapy
– – – Neuroprotective treatments
– – – Neural transplantation
– – – Nutrients
– – – Qigong
– Prognosis
– Notable Parkinson’s sufferers
– References
Dopamine agonists
– See also
Antiplatelet drugs
– Choice of antiplatelet drug
– Antiplatelet drugs
– See also
Clopidogrel (Plavix)
– Pharmacology
– Clinical use
– – Indications
– – Dosage forms
– – Adverse effects
– References
Antipsychotics
– Common antipsychotic drugs
– Drug action and effectiveness
– Side effects
– Typical vs Atypical comparison
– History and design
Atypical antipsychotics
– History
– Pharmacology of the atypicals
– Side effects
– – Tardive Dyskinesia
– – Metabolic side effects with atypical antipsychotics
– Atypical antipsychotic medications
Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
– Pharmacology
– Pharmacokinetics
– Metabolism
– Adverse events
– Overdose
Phenothiazines
– Properties
– Phenothiazine-derivative drugs
– References
Tardive dyskinesia
– ICD-9
– OMIM
– DiseasesDB
– eMedicine
– Features
– Cause
– Treatment
– – Caveats
– Epidemiology
– References
Typical antipsychotics
– Depot injections
– Common side effects
– Risks of serious side effects
– Typical medications
– See also
Haloperidol
– Chemistry
– Pharmacology
– Pharmacokinetics
– – Oral dosing
– – Intramuscular injections
– – Intravenous injections
– – Therapeutic concentrations
– Uses
– Contraindications
– – Absolute
– – Special caution needed
– Side-effects
– Abuse and dependence
– Other Remarks
– Pregnancy and lactation
– Carcinogenicity
– Interactions
– Doses
– Overdose
– Other formulations
– Veterinary use
– Dose forms
– References
Lithium pharmacology
– History
– Treatment
– Mechanism of Action
– Lithium toxicity and side effects
– Lithium teratogenicity
– Lithium overdose
– Lithium and culture
– References
– Selected bibliography
Antitussives
– Cough suppressants
– Expectorants
– Cough drops
– Controversy
– Colloquial term usage
– Notes
Dextromethorphan
– Chemistry
– Indications
– Pharmacodynamics
– Clinical pharmacology
– History
– Fibromyalgia treatment
– Recreational use
– See also
– Footnotes
Cannabinoids
– Cannabinoid receptors
– Natural cannabinoids
– – Type
– Endogenous Cannabinoids
– Synthetic & Patented Cannabinoids
– Miscellaneous
– References
Tetrahydrocannabinol
– Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
– Pharmacology
– – Toxicity
– Research
– Synthetic THC
– See also
– References
Chemical contraception – Hormonal contraception
– Advantages
– Disadvantages
– Effects on rates of cancers
– Types of Hormonal Contraception
– – Oral Contraceptives
– – Non-surgical devices
– – Surgical devices
– – Injections
– Cenchroman
– Footnotes
Depo Provera
– How it works
– Benefits
– Pregnancy and breastfeeding
– Disadvantages and side effects
– – Warnings and precautions
– – – Black box warning
– – Side effects
– – Related studies
– Contraindications
– Other uses
– Controversy over Approval of Depo
– – Aftermath
– Footnotes
Oral contraceptive
– History
– – France
– – Japan
– – Seasonale
– Use
– Mechanism of action
– – Contraception vs Abortion debate
– Effectiveness
– Packaging
– Drug interactions
– Side-effects
– – Effects on sexuality
– Cautions and contraindications
– Non-Contraceptive Uses
– Social and cultural impact
– Environmental impact
– Footnotes
Decongestants
– See also
Topical decongestants
– Mechanism of action
– Examples of topical decongestants
– See also
Chemotherapeutic agents
– History
– Principles
– Types
– – Alkylating agents (L01A)
– – Anti-metabolites (L01B)
– – Plant alkaloids and terpenoids (L01C)
– – – Vinca alkaloids (L01CA)
– – – Podophyllotoxin (L01CB)
– – – Taxanes (L01CD)
– – Topoisomerase inhibitors (L01CB and L01XX)
– – Antitumour antibiotics (L01D)
– – Hormonal therapy
– Dosage
– Delivery
– Side-effects
– – Immunosuppression and myelosuppression
– – Nausea and vomiting
– – Other side effects
– See also
– References
Angiogenesis inhibitors
Nitrogen mustard
Dietary supplements
– United States
– European Union
– – Legal challenge
– Russia
– Notes
– See also
Energy drinks
– History
– Criticism
– – Addiction potential
– – Health hazard
– Table of energy drinks
– References
5-Hydroxytryptophan
– Pharmacology
– 5-HTP as therapeutic supplement
– – Research
– – Uses
– – – 5-HTP supplements instead of SSRIs
– – Dosage
– – Side effects
– References
Calcium
– General
– Physical properties
– Miscellaneous
– Selected isotopes
– Notable characteristics
– Occurrence
– Applications
– History
– Compounds
– Isotopes
– Nutrition
– – Dietary sources of calcium
– Dietary calcium supplements
– See also
– Notes
– References
Calcium in biology
– Measuring Ca2+ in living tissue
– Organs and tissues
– Cell biology
– Calcium in plants
– – Structural roles
– – Cell signalling
– Food sources
– References
Dietary fiber
– Uses
– – Soluble and insoluble fibres
– – Fermentable fiber
– – Short-chain fatty acids
– – Regulatory guidance on fiber products
– Guidelines on fiber intake
– Sources of fiber
– Fiber supplements
– – Psyllium husk
– – Methylcellulose
– – Polycarbophil
– – Vegetable gums
– Further reading
– References
Folic acid
– Properties
– Hazards
– UV-Vis
– Related compounds
– Folate in foods
– History
– Biological roles
– Biochemistry
– Recommended Dietary Allowance for folate
– Folic acid and pregnancy
– Folic acid supplements and masking of B12 deficiency
– Health risk of too much folic acid
– Some current issues and controversies about folate
– – Dietary fortification of folic acid
– – Folic acid and heart disease
– – Folic acid and cancer
– – – Folic acid and methotrexate for cancer
– – Folic acid and methotrexate for non-cancerous diseases
– – Folic acid and depression
– Bibliography
– References
Glutamine
– Biochemistry
– – Formation and Nomenclature
– Nutrition
– – Occurrences in Nature
– – Use
– – Aiding gastrointestinal function
– – Aiding recovery after surgery
– References
Linseed oil
– Uses
– – As a paint binder
– – As a wood finish
– – As a nutritional supplement
– – Additional uses
– Boiled linseed oil
– Nutrient content
– References
Erectile dysfunction drugs
– ICD-10
– ICD-9
– Medical symptoms
– Medical diagnosis
– Clinical tests used to diagnose ED
– Pathophysiology
– Treatment
– – Uncontroversial treatments
– – Controversial and unapproved treatments
– History
– Prevalence
– References
– Footnotes
PDE5 inhibitors
– Mode of action
– Clinical use of PDE5 inhibitors
– – Indications
– – Contraindications
– – Adverse drug reactions
– – Drug interactions
– Examples
– References
Sildenafil (Viagra)
– History
– Mechanism of action
– Dosage and price
– Contraindications
– Side effects
– Other uses
– – Pulmonary hypertension
– – Raynaud’s phenomenon
– Drug abuses
– – Aphrodisiac
– – Recreational use
– Chemical Synthesis
– Notes
Testosterone
– Sources of testosterone
– Mechanism of effects
– Effects of testosterone on humans
– – Effects of testosterone on the human brain
– – Testosterone in athletes
– Therapeutic use of testosterone
– The “testosterone deficiency” of aging and the andropause controversy
– Synthesis
– Notes
Expectorants
Potassium iodide
– Properties
– Hazards
– Related compounds
– Chemical properties
– Preparation
– Uses
– Role of potassium iodide in radiological emergency preparedness
– – Age = KI in mg = KIO3 in mg
– Precautions
– References
Gastrointestinal system drugs
– Basic anatomy
– – The gut
– – – Upper gastrointestinal tract
– – – Lower gastrointestinal tract
– – Related organs
– Physiology
– – Specialization of organs
– – Immune function
– Histology
– – Mucosa
– – Submucosa
– – Muscularis externa
– – Adventitia/Serosa
– Uses of gut
– References
Antidiarrhoeals
Antiemetics
Laxatives
– Bulk-producing agents
– Stool softeners / Surfactants
– Lubricants / Emollient
– Hydrating agents (osmotics)
– – Saline
– – Hyperosmotic agents
– Stimulant / Irritant
– – Castor oil
– Other
Aloe
– Scientific classification
– Uses
– – External uses
– – Internal uses
– Heraldry
– Species
Enema
– Medical usage
– Home usage
– Non-medical usage
– – Ritual use
– Colonic irrigation
– References
Glycerol
– Purification
– Applications
– – Drugs
– – Personal care
– – Foods and beverages
– – Polyether polyols
– – Alkyd resins (plastics) and cellophane
– – Absolute alcohol
– – Other applications
Magnesium sulfate
– Properties
– Structure
– Related compounds
– Origin
– Agricultural use
– Medical use
– Use in organic chemistry
– Other uses
– Reference
Mineral oil
– Applications
– Measurement
– Other names
– Sources
Proton pump inhibitors
– Clinical Use
– Mechanism of action
– Pharmacokinetics
– Examples of proton pump inhibitors
– Adverse effects
– References
Esomeprazole (Nexium)
– Pharmacology
– Clinical use
– – Use in Helicobacter pylori eradication
– Evidence of efficacy
– Dosage forms
– – Multiple unit pellet system
– References
Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
– Pharmacology
– Indications
– Contraindications
– Side effects
– Brand names
Antacid
– Action mechanism
– Indications
– Side effects
– Interactions
– Problems with reduced stomach acidity
– Drug names
Hormonal agents
– History
– Physiology of hormones
– Types of hormones
– Pharmacology
– Important human hormones
– – Amine (derived) hormones
– – Peptide hormones
– – Steroid and sterol hormones
– – – Steroidal
– – – Sterol
– – Lipid and phospholipid hormones (eicosanoids)
– References
Antiandrogens
5-alpha-reductase inhibitors
– Clinical use
– – Indications
– – Adverse drug reactions
– Pharmacology
– Examples
– Reference
GnRH agonists
Mineralocorticoids
– Physiology
– Mode of Action
– Pathophysiology
– Pharmacology
Aldosterone
– Contents
– Aldosterone and the kidney
– – Control of aldosterone release
– References
Selective estrogen receptor modulator
– Members
– Uses
– Method of action
– Actions
– References
Raloxifene
– Description
– Indication
– Contraindications and Precautions
– Adverse Reactions
– References
Tamoxifen
– Side effects
– 4-hydroxytamoxifen
– Pharmacogenetics
Sex steroids
Androgens
– Types of androgens
– Androgen functions
– – Development of the male
– – Spermatogenesis
– – Inhibition of fat deposition
– – Muscle mass
– – Brain
– Insensitivity to androgen in humans
– References
– See also
Anabolic steroids
– Anabolic and virilizing effects
– Possible unwanted side effects
– – Male-specific side effects
– – Female-specific side effects
– – Adolescent-specific side effects
– Medical uses
– Administration
– Use and abuse in sports
– Minimizing the side effects
– Popular misconceptions
– Illegal trade in anabolic steroids
– – Production
– – Distribution
– History
– Movement for decriminalization
– List of anabolic compounds commonly used as ergogenic aids
– References
Gestrinone
– Method of action
– Metabolism
– Contraindications and side effects
– Other uses
– References
Dehydroepiandrosterone
– Synonyms and brand names
– DHEAS (Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate)
– Production
– Role
– Effects
– – Disputed effects
– Precautions
– Contraindication
– Increasing endogenous production
– References
– Further reading
Estrogens
– Explanation
– Estrogen production
– Functions of estrogens
– Medical applications
– – Health risks and warning labels
– Estrogens in cosmetics
– The History of Estrogen
– References
– See also
Estradiol
– Synthesis
– Production
– Mechanism of action
– Metabolism
– Measurement
– Effects
– – Female reproduction
– – Sexual development
– – Male reproduction
– – Bone
– – Liver
– – Brain
– – Blood vessels
– – Oncogene
– – Pregnancy
– Role in sexual differentiation
– Estradiol medication
– Therapy
– – Hormone replacement therapy
– – Blocking estrogens
– – Hormonal contraception
– – List of estradiol medications
– Contraindications
– Side effects
– References
– See also
Progestagens
– Uses
Progesterone
– Chemistry
– – Synthesis
– Sources
– Levels
– Effects
– – Reproduction
– – Neurosteroid
– – Other systems
– Medical Applications
– References
Hypolipidemic agents
– Classes of hypolipidemic drugs
Fibrates
– Members
– Indications
– Side effects
– Pharmacology
– See also
Statins
– Members
– Mode of action
– – Cholesterol lowering
– – Non-cholesterol related actions
– Indications and uses
– Pharmacogenomics
– Safety
– – Adverse effects
– – Drug interactions
– History
– References
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
– Pharmacology
– Clinical use
– – Indications
– – Available forms
– – Adverse effects
– References
– Further reading
Simvastatin (Zocor)
– History
– Uses
– Rationing
– Pharmacology
– – Interactions
– Marketing
– Sales
– References
Niacin
– Discovery
– Bioavailability
– Biosynthesis
– Food Sources
– – Animal products:
– – Fruits and vegetables:
– – Seeds:
– – Fungi:
– Other uses
– – Industrial use
– References
Immunosuppressive agents
– See also
Immunosuppressive drugs
– Glucocorticoids
– – Immunosuppressive mechanism
– – Antiinflammatory effects
– Cytostatics
– – Alkylating agents
– – Antimetabolites
– – – Methotrexate
– – – Azathioprine and Mercaptopurine
– – Cytotoxic antibiotics
– Antibodies
– – Polyclonal antibodies
– – Monoclonal antibodies
– – – T-cell receptor directed antibodies
– – – IL-2 receptor directed antibodies
– Drugs acting on immunophilins
– – Cyclosporin
– – Tacrolimus (Prograf(TM), FK506)
– – Sirolimus (Rapamune (Tm), Rapamicin)
– Other drugs
– – Interferons
– – Opioids
– – TNF binding proteins
– – Mycophenolate
– – Small biological agents
Inotropic agents
– Positive inotropic agents
– Negative inotropic agents
Dopamine
– Properties
– Hazards
– Biochemistry
– Functions in the brain
– – Movement
– – Cognition and frontal cortex
– – Regulating prolactin secretion
– – Motivation and pleasure
– Links to psychosis
– Depression
– Therapeutic use
– Major pathways
– See also
– Footnotes
Intravenous fluids
– Intravenous access devices
– – Needle and syringe
– – Peripheral IV lines
– – Central IV lines
– – – Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)
– – – Central venous lines
– – – Implantable ports
– Forms of intravenous therapy
– – Intravenous drip
– – – IV fluids
– – – Infusion equipment
– – Intermittent infusion
– Risks of intravenous therapy
– – Infection
– – Phlebitis
– – Infiltration
– – Fluid overload
– – Electrolyte imbalance
– – Embolism
Saline
– See also
Medicinal herbs and fungi
Essential oils
– Plant oils
– Types
– Uses
– Components
– Production
– – Distillation
– – Expression
– – Solvent extraction
– – Production quantities
– – Oil, Tonnes
– Essential oil use in aromatherapy
– Solvents
– Raw Materials
– – Rose oil
– Dangers
– Notes and references
– – Additional references
Herbal and fungal hallucinogens
Agaricales
– Scientific classification
– Classification
– Distribution and habitat
– Characteristics
– Life cycle
– – Propagation
Amanita muscaria
– Amanita muscaria Conservation status: Secure
– Scientific classification
– Description
– Classification
– – Varieties
– Distribution and habitat
– Toxicity
– – Chemistry
– – Psychoactive properties
– Mythology and religion
– Legality
– Popular culture
– – Children’s culture
– – Art
– – Santa Claus
– Footnotes
– Bibliography
Ayahuasca
– Names
– Usage
– – Introduction to the West
– Plant constituents
– – Traditional
– – Western
– Legal status
– Books
– Filmography
– Fiction
– References
Dimethyltryptamine
– Hallucinogenic properties
– Side Effects
– Chemistry
– Speculations
– Legal status
– Culture
– See also
– Notes
– References
Ergot
– Scientific classification
– Life cycle of the fungus
– Effects on humans and animals
– Speculations
Morning glory
– Culinary use
– Recreational use
Peyote
– Scientific classification
– Plant
– Medicinal effects
– History
– Legality
– – USA
– – Canada
– – International
– See also
Psychedelic mushroom
– Categorization
– History
– Effects
– – Physical
– – Sensory
– – Emotional
– – Psychological
– Dosage
– Legal status
– – The Netherlands
– – Canada
– – Japan
– – New Zealand
– – Republic of Ireland
– – United Kingdom
– – United States of America
– Drug trade
– – Production
– – Trafficking
– Identification
– – Amanita muscaria
– See also
– Notes
– References
– Further reading
Soma
– Etymology
– Vedic Soma
– – In the Rigveda
– – In Hinduism
– Avestan Haoma
– Candidates for the Soma plant
– In Western Culture
– References
Herbal and fungal stimulants
Coca
– Scientific classification
– Species and classification
– Cultivation and uses
– – Pharmacological aspects
– – Traditional uses
– – International use
– – Industrial use
– Legality
– – International
– References
Cocoa
– History
– Production
– – World Production
– – Top Cocoa Producers – 2004 (million metric ton)
– – Harvesting
– – Processing
– – Chocolate production
– Uses of cocoa
– Issues with cocoa as a commodity
– Cocoa Trading
– See also
– References
Coffea
– Scientific classification
– Botany
– Processing
– – Problems of maintaining quality during bean production
– – The economics of growing coffee
– – Hand picked coffee
– History
Khat
– Conservation status: Least concern (LR/lc)
– Scientific classification
– Cultivation and uses
– Chemistry/pharmacology
– User population
– – UK
– Control status
– Trivia
– References
– Notes
Tea
– Processing and classification
– Blending and additives
– Content
– Origin and early history in Asia
– – Creation myths
– – China
– – – Advent of steaming and powder tea
– – – Roasting and brewing
– – – Oxidization (often mistakenly called fermentation)
– – Korea
– – Japanese Involvement
– – – Importing tea and tea culture
– – – Kissa Yojoki – the Book of Tea
– – – Roasting process introduced to Japan
– – – Japan tea culture emerges
– – – Modern Japanese green tea
– – – Rolling machines
– – – Automation
– Tea spreads to the world
– The word tea
– Tea culture
– Preparation
– Packaging
– Storage
– References
Yerba mate
– Conservation status: Near threatened (LR/nt)
– Scientific classification
– Nomenclature
– Cultivation
– Chemical composition and properties
Medicinal plants
– Biological background
– Popularity
– Types of herbal medicine
– – Herbal teas
– – Herbal tinctures
– – Fluid extracts
– – Herbal poultices
– – Powdered herbs and tablets
– – Herbal creams and ointments
– – Essential oils
– – Herbal supplements
– Examples of herbal medicine
– Dangers
– – Effectiveness
– – Name confusion
– – Standards and quality control
– – Medical interaction
– See also
– References
List of medicinal herbs
– Species – Common name (Properties)
– See also
Bay Laurel
– Uses and symbolism
– Trivia
Cardamom
– Scientific classification
– Types of cardamom and their distribution
– Uses
– Uses in cuisines around the world
– – In traditional medicine
Liquorice
– Scientific classification
– Cultivation and uses
– – Culinary use
– – Medicinal use
Papaya
– Scientific classification
– Cultivation and uses
– See also
Castor oil plant
– Scientific classification
Dandelion
– Scientific classification
– Detailed Description
– – The Dandelion Clock
– – The Seeds
– Name
– Selected species
– Seed development and genetics
– Uses
– – Antioxidant Properties of Dandelion
– – Caffeic Acid and Carcinogenicity
– False Dandelions
– References and external links
Echinacea
– Scientific classification
– Uses
– References
Eucalyptus
– Scientific classification
– Description
– – Flowers and leaves
– – Bark
– – Related genera
– – Tall timber
– – Tolerance
– Animal relationships
– Hazards
– Fire
– Cultivation and uses
– Plantation and ecological problems
– – California
– References
Flax
– Scientific classification
– Uses
– – Flax seed
– – Flax fibre
– Cultivation
– – Threshing flax
– Trivia
– References
– See also
Ginger
– Zingiber officinale Conservation status: Secure
– Chemistry
– Culinary uses
– Medicinal uses
– Ginger allergies
– Gardening
– Reference in Popular Culture
– Similar species
– References
Ginkgo
– Conservation status: Endangered
– Scientific classification
– Characteristics
– – Habit
– – Stem
– – Leaves
– – Reproduction
– Name
– Prehistory
– – Culinary use
– – Medical uses
– – – Side effects
– See also
– References
Hop
– Scientific classification
– Species
– Cultivation
– – History
– – Propagation and pests
– – Harvest
– Production
– Uses
– – Beer
– – Medicinal use
– – Fibre
– – Other uses
– References
Mistletoe
– Scientific classification
– Uses and mythology
Oat
– Scientific classification
– Distribution
– Health
– – Soluble Fibre
– – Protein
– – Celiac Disease
– Agronomy
– Trivia
– References
Peppermint
– Scientific classification
– Uses
– Cultivation
– Reference
Rosemary
– Conservation status: Secure
– Scientific classification
– Cultivation and uses
– Medicinal uses
– References
Saffron
– Saffron crocus
– Scientific classification
– Biology
– Cultivation
– Chemistry
– History
– – Mediterranean
– – Asia The 17.8 m monolith of Jain God Bhagavan Gomateshwara Bahubali, which was carved between 978–993 AD and is located in Shravanabelagola, India, is anointed with saffron every 12 years by thousands of devotees as part of the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.
– – Europe
– Trade and usage
– Cultivars
– Grades
– – Minimum saffron colour grading standards (ISO 3632)
– – Spanish federal saffron grading standards
– Citations
– References
Sassafras
– Scientific classification
– Species
– Uses
Willow
– Scientific classification
– Uses
Yeast
– Physiology
– Use in biotechnology
– Growth environment
Monoclonal antibodies
– Discovery
– Production
– Applications
– – Monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment
– – Chimeric and humanized antibodies
– See also
– References
Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies
Muscle relaxant
– Central acting muscle relaxants
– Unclassified
– Acting on smooth muscle
– Other
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs
– Non-depolarizing blocking agents
– Depolarizing blocking agents
– Comparison of drugs
– Adverse effects
Suxamethonium chloride
– Phase 1 block
– Phase 2 block
– Medical uses
– Side effects
Nootropic
– General strategies
– Nootropic substances
– – Replenishing and increasing neurotransmitters
– – – Cholinergics
– – – Dopaminergics
– – – Serotonergics
– – Anti-depression, adaptogenic and mood stabilization
– – Brain energy and improved oxygen supply
– – Mental agility, concentration, stamina, and focus
– – Memory enhancement and learning improvement
– – Nerve growth stimulation and brain cell protection
– – Sleep enhancement or reduction
– – Recreational drugs with purported nootropic effects
– – Other nootropics
– Related pages
– – Health
– Notes
– Books
Ampakines
– Structure
– Mechanism
– References
– See also
Substances of the piracetam group
– Effects
– Mechanisms of action
– History
– Approval and usage
– Dosage
– Contraindications
– Special warnings and precautions for use
– Undesirable effects
– See also
Parasympathomimetics
– Pharmaceuticals
– Sources
Anticholinesterases
– Uses
– Examples
– – reversible inhibitor
– – quasi-irreversible inhibitor
– Effects
Cyclosarin
– Discovery
– Chemical Characteristics
– Chemical characteristics
– Historical notes
– Munitions
– – Binary weapons
– – GB-GF Mixtures
Insecticide
– Classes of agricultural insecticides
– Classes of insecticides, a short history
– Environmental effects
– Application methods for household insecticides
– Individual insecticides
– – Chlorinated
– – Organophosphorus
– – Carbamates
– – Pyrethroids
– – Plant toxin derived
Nerve agents
– Biological effects
– – Mechanism of action
– – Antidotes
– Classes
– – G-Series
– – V-Series
– – Novichok Agents
– – Insecticides
– History
– – The discovery of nerve agents
– – The Nazi mass production of tabun
– – Nerve agents in Nazi Germany
– – The secret gets out
– – Since World War II
– – Ocean Disposal of Chemical Weapons
– Popular Culture
Sarin
– Chemical Characteristics
– Precursors
– Chemical characteristics
– – Shelf life
– – – Efforts to lengthen shelf life
– Biological Effects
– History
– – Origin
– – Sarin in Nazi Germany During World War II
– – Sarin after World War II
– References
Soman
– Discovered by Richard Kuhn
– Discovered in 1944
– Chemical characteristics
– Chemical name
– Chemical family
– Chemical formula
– Boiling point
– Freezing/melting point
– Vapor pressure
– Vapor relative density (air=1)
– Solubility in water
– Density at 25 C
– Appearance and color
– Alternative names
– History
Tabun
– Discovered by Gerhard Schrader
– Discovered in 1936
– Chemical characteristics
– Chemical name
– Chemical family
– Chemical formula
– NFPA Rating
– Boiling point
– Freezing/melting point
– Vapor pressure
– Vapor Density (Air=1)
– Liquid density
– Solubility in water
– Specific gravity
– Appearance and color
– Fire and Explosion Data
– Flashpoint
– Unusual hazards
– Effects of overexposure
– Alternative names
– History
– See also
VE
– VE (nerve agent)
VG
– References
VM
VX
– Discovered by Ranajit Ghosh
– Discovered in 1952
– Chemical characteristics
– Chemical name
– Chemical family
– Chemical formula
– NFPA Rating
– Boiling point
– Freezing/melting point
– Vapor pressure
– Vapor Density (Air=1)
– Liquid density
– Specific gravity
– Appearance and color
– Synthesis
– History
– References
– See also
Choline esters – Acetylcholine
– Chemistry
– Release sites
– Pharmacology
– – ACh Receptor Agonists
– – – Direct Acting
– – – Indirect Acting (reversible)
– – – Indirect Acting (irreversible)
– – – Reactivation of Acetylcholine Esterase
– – ACh Receptor Antagonists
– – – Antimuscarinic Agents
– – – Ganglionic Blockers
– – – Neuromuscular Blockers
– – – Others? / Uncategorized / Unknown
– Neuromodulatory Effects
– Sources
Muscarinic agonists
– Drugs
– See also
– References
Muscarine
– References
Nicotinic agonists
– Nicotine
– Properties
– Chemistry
– Pharmacology
– – Dynamics
– Toxicology
– Therapeutic uses
– History and name
– See also
– References
Pharmacology
– Drug legislation and safety
– Scientific background
– Drugs used as medicines
– Education
– See also
– Footnotes
Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
– Classification
– – First level
– – Second level
– – Third level
– – Fourth level
– – Fifth level
– – Further notes
Biotechnology
– Biotechnology medical products
– History
– Global biotechnology trends
– Biotechnology firms
– Key visionaries and personalities in biotechnology sector
– See also
– References
Bioinformatics
– Major Research Areas
– – Sequence analysis
– – – Genome annotation
– – Computational evolutionary biology
– – Measuring biodiversity
– – Analysis of gene expression
– – Analysis of regulation
– – Analysis of protein expression
– – Analysis of mutations in cancer
– – Prediction of protein structure
– – Comparative genomics
– – Modeling biological systems
– – High-throughput image analysis
– Software tools
– See also
– – Related fields
– References
Genetic algorithms
– GA procedure
– – Initialization
– – Selection
– – Reproduction
– – Termination
– – Pseudo-code algorithm
– – Observations
– Variants
– Problem domains
– History
– Related techniques
– Building block hypothesis
– Applications
– References
Bioluminescence
– Characteristics of the phenomenon
– Adaptations for bioluminescence
– – Attraction
– – Repulsion
– – Communication
– Biotechnology
– Organisms that bioluminesce
– – Non-marine organisms
– – Fish
– – Marine invertebrates
– – Plankton and microbes
Biotechnology products
Recombinant proteins
– Contents
– Uses
– Plasmids and recombinant DNA technology
Green fluorescent protein
– Notes
Growth hormone
– Terminology
– Structure and gene of the human GH molecule
– Secretion of GH
– Functions of GH
– Clinical problems: too much and too little
– – Growth hormone excess: (acromegaly and pituitary gigantism)
– – Growth hormone deficiency (GHD)
– Other GH uses and treatment indications
– Risks and side effects of GH treatment
– History
– HGH quackery
Luteinizing hormone
– Structure
– Genes
– Activity
– Normal levels
– Ovulation predictor kit (LH kit)
– Disease States
– – Relative elevations
– – High LH levels
– – Deficient LH activity
– Availability
– References
Acetone
– Properties
– Structure
– Hazards
– Supplementary data page
– Related compounds
– Uses
– Uses in universities and professional laboratories
– Health effects
Cloning
– Molecular cloning
– Genetic cloning
– Organism
– – Horticultural
– – Animals
– – Reproductive Cloning
– – – Species cloned
– – – Health aspects
– – – Dolly the Sheep
– – – Human cloning
– – – Ethical issues of human cloning
– – – Cloning extinct and endangered species
– – Embryo
– References
Genetic engineering
– Applications
– – Genetic engineering and research
Molecular genetics
– Forward genetics
– Reverse genetics
– See also
DNA repair
– DNA damage
– – Sources of damage
– – Types of damage
– – Nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA damage
– – Senescence and apoptosis
– DNA repair mechanisms
– – Direct reversal
– – Single strand damage
– – Double strand breaks
– – Translesion synthesis
– DNA repair and aging
– – Poor DNA repair induces pathology
– – Longevity and caloric restriction
– Medicine and DNA repair modulation
– – Hereditary DNA repair disorders
– – DNA repair and cancer
– DNA repair and evolution
– – An Ancient and Conserved Mechanism
– – Evolutionary rate as a function of DNA repair rate
– See also
– References
DNA replication
– Introduction
– 3 Steps for DNA polymerization
– – Initiation
– – Elongation
– – Termination
– – Equation
– Organization of multiple replication sites
– See also
DNA polymerase
– DNA polymerase families
– – Family A
– – Family B
– – Family C
– – Family D
– – Families X
– – Families Y
– – Family RT
– Prokaryotic DNA polymerases
– Eukaryotic DNA polymerases
– References
– – Citations
Gene expression
– Patterns of gene expression
– Measurement
– Regulation of gene expression
– Overexpression
– Gene networks and expression
– Techniques
Posttranslational modification
– PTMs involving addition of functional groups
– PTMs involving addition of other proteins or peptides
– PTMs involving changing the chemical nature of amino acids
– PTMs involving structural changes
– Case examples
Protease
– Classification
– Occurrence
– Inhibitors
– Degradation
– Protease research
– References
Ubiquitin
– The protein
– Ubiquitylation
– Disease association
– – Genetic disorders
– – Immunohistochemistry
– Further reading
Protein biosynthesis
– Amino acid synthesis
– Transcription
– Translation
– Events following biosynthesis (Protein Synthesis)
– See also
Genetic code
– Cracking the genetic code
– Transfer of information via the genetic code
– Table 1: RNA codon table
– Table 2: Reverse codon table
– Salient features
– – Reading frame of a sequence
– – Start/stop codons
– – Degeneracy of the genetic code
– Variations
– Origin of the genetic code
– References
– See also
Transcription factor
– Classes
– DNA motifs found in transcription factors
– Examples of transcription factors
– – STAT
– – – Function of STAT proteins
– – – Activation of STAT proteins
Stem cells
– Stem cell properties
– – Defining properties
– – – Potency definitions
– Embryonic stem cells
– Adult stem cells
– Lineage
– Treatments
– Controversy surrounding stem cell research
– Key events in stem cell research
– References
Vaccination
– Triggering immune sensitization
– History of vaccinations
– Compulsory vaccination and opposition to vaccination
– Herd immunity and medical risk management issues
– Adjuvants and preservatives
– Vaccine research
– See also
– References
Vaccines
– Types of vaccines
– Developing immunity
– Vaccination schedule
– Vaccine Controversies
– – Potential for adverse side effects in general
– – Efficacy of vaccines
– Adverse effects (known and suspected)
– Economics of vaccine development
– Preservatives
– List of Vaccines
Chickenpox
– ICD-10
– ICD-9
– DiseasesDB
– MedlinePlus
– eMedicine
– Symptoms and signs
– – Congenital defects in babies
– Prognosis and treatment
– Screening and prevention
– History
– Vaccination
– Controversy
– – Duration of immunity
– – Immunocompromise
– Pox parties
– See also
– Notes
Flu vaccine
– History of the flu vaccine
– – Vaccines prior to flu vaccines
– – Influenza
– – Flu vaccine origins
– – Flu vaccine acceptance
– – Current status
– Clinical trials of vaccines
– Who should get it
– Flu vaccine virus selection
– – Influenza B
– – New viruses
– – Manufacturing issues
– – Strains selected
– – Unexpected difficulties
– – Response to unexpected difficulties
– Flu vaccine manufacturing
– H5N1
– Flu seasons
– – 2003-2004 season
– – 2004-2005 season
– – 2005-2006 season
– – 2006-2007 season
– Flu vaccine for nonhumans
– See also
– Sources and notes
HIV vaccine
– Difficulties in developing an HIV vaccine
– Research achievements
– Clinical trials to date
– Economics of vaccine development
– Controversy
– References
MMR vaccine
– Adverse Effects
– Weighing adverse effects and benefits
– Development, Formulation and Administration
– – Disease Immunized – Component Vaccine – Virus Strain – Propagation Medium – Growth Medium
– Footnotes
– See also
Polio vaccine
– Simian virus contamination
Anti-vaccinationists
– Timeline
– – Arguments against vaccination
– Consequences of success
– Events following reductions in vaccination
– – UK: DPT 1970s-80s
– – The Netherlands: measles (1999-2000)
– – Ireland: measles (2000)
– Anti-vaccinationist material
– Anti-vaccination organisations
– – Historical
– – – Aims and results of the early movements
– – Current
– – General
– The state
– Anti-vaccinationist assertions
– – No benefit
– – 50 percent
– – 90 percent
– – In on-line responses
– Attacks on a broad front
– – Science
– – Doctors’ behaviour
– – Cell-lines
– – Thiomersal
– – Effect on public morality
– Publications
– – Historical
– – Recent
– Notes
Vaccine controversy
– The case for widespread vaccines
– Criticism of widespread vaccine policy
– The MMR controversy
– – Dr. Andrew Wakefield’s report
– – – 1998 Lancet paper
– – – Controversy following publication of report
– – – Conflict of interest allegations
– – – Retraction of an interpretation of the Lancet paper
– – – General Medical Council Investigation
– – Recent studies
– Vaccination supporters
– – Organizations
– Vaccination critics
– – Organizations
– References
Antisense therapy
– See also
Biochemical engineering
– The Bioreactor
– Bioreactor design
– NASA Tissue Cloning Bioreactor
Biopharmaceuticals
– Classification of biopharmaceuticals
– Uses
– Large scale production
– – Transgenics
– See also
– Reference
Gene therapy
– Background
– Basic process
– Types of gene therapy
– Broad methods
– Vectors in gene therapy
– – Viruses
– – – Retroviruses
– – – Adenoviruses
– – – Adeno-associated viruses
– – – Envelope protein pseudotyping of viral vectors
– – Non-viral methods
– – – Naked DNA
– – – Oligodeoxynucleotides
– – – Lipoplexes and polyplexes
– – Hybrid methods
– Recent developments in gene therapy
– Problems and ethics
– In popular culture
– Publications
– See also
– Further reading
Chemopreventive agents
Flavonoids
– Biosynthesis
– Biological effects
– Important flavonoids
– – Quercetin
– – Oligomeric proanthocyanidins
– – Epicatechin
– Important dietary sources
– – Citrus
– – Green Tea
– – Availability through microorganisms
– Subgroups
– References
Anthocyanins
– Function
– Occurrence
– – foodstuff – Anthocyanin in mg per 100 g foodstuff
– Structure
– Biosynthesis
– Autumn Leaf Color
– Recent research
– References
Polyphenol antioxidant
– Biochemical regulation
– Biological consequences
– Difficulty in analyzing effects of specific chemicals
– Practical aspects of dietary polyphenol antioxidants
– Topical application of polyphenol antioxidants
– References
Tannins
– Tea
– Wine
– Pomegranates
– Leather
Turmeric
– Scientific classification
– Food additive
– Medicine
– Cosmetics
– Chemistry
– Notes
Medicinal chemistry
– Process of drug discovery
– – Discovery
– – Optimization
– – Development
– See also
Bioavailability
– Definition
– Absolute bioavailability
– Relative bioavailability
– Factors influencing bioavailability
– References
Drug design
– Rational drug design
– Examples of designed drugs
– See also
Drug discovery
– Targets: New and Established
– Screening and Design
– See also
– Notes
– References
Pharmacokinetics
– Absorption and disposition
– – Absorption
– – Disposition
– The one-compartmental case
– Modeling pharmacokinetic systems
– See also
– Further reading
Pharmacodynamics
– Drug action
– – Desired activity
– – Undesirable effects
– Receptor binding
– Multicellular pharmacodynamics
– See also
Pharmaceutical industry
– History
– Biotechnology company
– Drug discovery
– – Target identification
– – Target prioritization/validation
– – Lead identification
– – Lead optimization
– Drug development
– – Phase I Clinical Studies
– – Phase II Clinical Studies
– – Phase III Clinical Studies
– – New Drug Application
– – Orphan drug
– Post-approval surveillance
– – Phase IIIb/IV Studies
– – Post-Market Studies
– Products
– – Drug information
– – ICD and DRG
– Revenues
– – Industry revenues
– – – Top 10 pharmaceutical companies by sales
– – Patents and Generics
– – Medicare Part D
– Sales and marketing
– – The pharmaceutical industry is different
– – Advertising to physicians
– – Direct to consumer
– – The payers
– Regulation of Pharmaceutical Marketing and Distribution
– Mergers, acquisitions, and co-marketing of drugs
– Controversy
– – Pharmaceutical companies and the developing world
– – – In popular culture
– – – Tragedies in developing countries
– – – Charitable measures
– Bibliography
– – Controversy
– Industry Associations
– Regulatory authorities
– See also
– References
Approved drug
– See also
Blockbuster drug
– Leading blockbuster drugs
– Further reading
Counterfeit drug
– Overview
– Bacterial Resistance
– Television
– References
Drug development
– See also
Generic drug
– Reasons for cheaper price
– When can a generic drug be produced
– Patent lifetime and research cost issues
– Ensuring bioequivalence
– 180 Day Generic Drug Exclusivity
– Further reading
Pharmaceutical marketing
– History
– Direct and indirect marketing to health care providers
– – Individual research
– – Peer influence
– – Direct contact with pharmaceutical sales representatives
– – – Physician targeting
– – – Sales force size and structure
– – Patients
– – Private and public insurers
– Regulation
– Controversy
– See also
– Bibliography
Standard treatment
– Active (Positive) Concurrent Control
– See also
Pharmacy
– Disciplines
– Pharmacists
– Separation of prescribing from dispensing
– Community pharmacy
– Hospital pharmacy
– Consultant pharmacy
– Internet pharmacy
– The future of pharmacy
– See also
Adverse drug reaction
– Why do Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) matter and how do they happen?
– Regulatory authorities and guidelines
– See also
Chinese herbology
– History of Chinese herbology
– Categorizing Chinese herbs
– – The Four Natures
– – The Five Tastes
– – The Meridians
– 50 fundamental herbs
– References
– See also
Drug reaction testing
– See also
– References and End Notes
Essential medicines
Pharmacist
– Qualifications and registration
– – Australia
– – Greece
– – New Zealand
– – Republic of Ireland
– – Spain
– – United Kingdom
– – United States
– Roles
– Specialities
– – Practice specialisation
– – Specialty Practice accreditation
– See also
Self-medication
Adverse effect
– Reporting systems
– – UK
– – USA
– – Australia
– Adverse effects of medical procedures
– Adverse effects of drugs
– Controversies
– Limitations of adverse effects reporting
– Examples of adverse effects
– See also
Agonist
– Etymology
– See also
Placebo
– Early use of placebos
– Modern clinical application
– Technical challenges and pitfalls
– – Double-Blinding
– – Measuring the Placebo Effect
– Ethical challenges and concerns
– See also
Placebo effect
– Placebo-controlled studies
– – Notable placebo effect absences
– – Placebo and pain
– – Placebo and depression
– – Endogenous Opiates
– Objective or subjective effects?
– How the placebo effect works
– – Expectancy Effect
– – Conditioning
– – Motivation
– The use of placebos in medical practice
– Methodology of Administration
– Confounders mistaken for placebo effect
– Notes
– References
Prescription drug
– Regulation in United States
– Regulation in United Kingdom
– Further reading
Receptor antagonist
– See also
Tablet
– Tabletting formulations
– Tablet coating
– Tablet presses
– Pill-splitters
Medical prescription
– Format and definition
– – Contents of the prescription
– – Handling of the prescription
– – Forgeries, thefts and prevention
– Writing prescriptions
– – Who can write prescriptions
– – Legibility of prescriptions
– – Writing good prescriptions
– – Abbreviations
– Non prescription drug prescriptions
– Related usage of the term prescription
– History
– Future directions of prescriptions
– Appendix 1: Partial list of abbreviations
– – Abbreviation (Latin) Meaning
– Exhibit A: sample legal definition of a prescription
– Exhibit B: sample legal requirement for storage of prescriptions
– Exhibit C: sample legal requirements for security and format
– Exhibit D: sample requirements on information added by the pharmacist
– Exhibit E: New Jersey requirements for prescription blanks
– See also
Medication
– Classification
– Types of medication
– – For the gastrointestinal tract or digestive system
– – For the cardiovascular system
– – For the central nervous system
– – For pain & consciousness (analgesic drugs)
– – For musculo-skeletal disorders
– – For the eye
– – For the ear, nose and oropharynx
– – For the respiratory system
– – For endocrine problems
– – For the reproductive system or urinary system
– – For contraception
– – For obstetrics and gynaecology
– – For the skin
– – For infections and infestations
– – For immunology
– – For allergic disorders
– – For nutrition
– – For neoplastic disorders
– – For diagnostics
– – For euthanasia
– – Other/related topics
– See also
Phosphate binders
– Clinical use
– Mechanism of action
– Adverse effects
– Common phosphate binders
– Reference
Calcium carbonate
– Properties
– Thermochemistry
– Structure
– Hazards
– Supplementary data page
– Related compounds
– Occurrence
– Preparation
– Chemical properties
– Uses
– Calcination Equilibrium
– Solubility of calcium carbonate in water
– References
– External links
Psychoactive drugs
– A brief history of drug use
– Other psychoactive drugs
– Ways psychoactive drugs affect the brain
– Philosophy and morality of psychoactive drugs
– See also
– References
Alkyl nitrites
– Preparation and use
Antidepressants
– History
– Classes and members
– – Classes
– – Prominent members
– Mechanism of action
– Treatment strategies
– – Switching
– – Augmentation and combination
– – Combining with psychotherapy
– – Preventing relapse
– Tolerance and dependence
– Side effects
– – General
– – Sexual
– – REM Sleep
– Opioids
– Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
– Controversy
– Alternative medicines
– Developments
– References
Bicyclic antidepressants
– See also
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
– Uses
– – Therapeutic use
– – Traditional and entheogenic use
– Mode of action
– – Reversibility
– – Selectivity
– Dangers
– List of MAOIs
Reversible inhibitors of MAO-A
Harmala alkaloid
– Telepathine
– Uses
– References
– Chemical Forms
– See also
List of foods containing tyramine
– Alcoholic Beverages
– Cheeses
– Fruit
– Processed Foods
– Meat and Fish
– Soy
– Nuts and Chocolate
Monoamine reuptake inhibitors
Dopamine
– Contents
– Biochemistry
– Functions in the brain
– – Movement
– – Cognition and frontal cortex
– – Regulating prolactin secretion
– – Motivation and pleasure
– Links to psychosis
– Depression
– Therapeutic use
– Major pathways
– See also
– Footnotes
Amphetamines
– Toxicity
– Chemistry
– Pharmacology
– Application range
– Medicinal use
– Effects of use
– – Physical effects
– – Psychological effects
– Addiction
– Legal issues
– Popular culture
– Books
– Related pages
– References and Notes
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
– MDA
– Medical use
– Recreational use
– Effects
– Legality
– References
Adderall
– Use
– – Effects
– – – Side effects
– – – Less common side effects
– – – Rare side effects
– – – Contraindications
– Performance-enhancing use
– History/How it works
– Government warnings
– See also
Benzedrine
– Influence
– See also
Bupropion
– History
– Mode of action
– Pharmacokinetics
– Chronic hepatotoxicity in animals
– Contraindications
– Side effects
– Interactions
– Abuse liability
– Dosage
– – Dose forms
– – Overdosage
– Additional warnings
– – May cause false-positive for amphetamine
– – Use in pediatric patients
– – Potential indications of bipolar and schizoaffective disorder
– – Alleged risks with certain treatments
– – Studies of juveniles with depression
– References
Ephedrine
– Chemistry
– Mode of action
– Clinical use
– – Adverse effects
– – Contraindications
– Recreational and illicit use
– – Neurotoxicity of Ephedrine
– – Legality in USA
– Footnotes
– See also
Methamphetamine
– Availability and names
– History
– Production
– Distribution
– Medical use
– Pharmacology
– – Tolerance
– Side effects
– Addiction
– Routes of administration
– Legality
– – Australia
– – Canada
– – New Zealand
– – South Africa
– – United Kingdom
– – United States
– See also
– References
– Footnotes
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
– CAS number
– Chemical formula
– Molecular weight
– SMILES
– Elimination half life
– Legal status
– Delivery
– Side effects:
– History
– Recreational use
– Supply and administration
– Effects
– – Pharmacokinetics
– – Short-term neurochemical effects
– – Subjective effects
– – Other short-term effects
– – Acute toxic/dangerous effects
– – Addiction and Tolerance
– – Long-term adverse effects
– – MDMA and Parkinson’s
– Legal issues
– – Medical use and clinical studies
– Safety and contraindications
– See also
– References
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
– List of SSRIs
– Medical indications
– Contraindications / drug interaction
– Mode of action
– – Basic understanding
– – Pharmacodynamics
– – Interaction with carbohydrate metabolism
– – Neuroprotection
– – SSRIs versus TCAs
– – SSRIs versus 5-HT-Prodrugs
– Adverse effects
– – General side effects
– – Suicidality
– – Sexual side effects
– – PANES
– Overdose
– Criticism of SSRIs
– Other medications to treat depression
– References and Notes
Paroxetine
– Trade names
– Indications
– – Approved
– – Unapproved/Off-label/Investigational
– Pharmacology
– Paroxetine controlled release (CR)
– Chemistry
– Formulations
– Side effects
– Discontinuation syndrome
– Footnotes
Sertraline (Zoloft)
– Invention
– Indications
– – Approved
– – Unapproved, off-label, and investigational
– Side effects
– Distribution
– Formulations
– Green Technology?
– Precautions
– Dopamine
– Controversy
– Discontinuation Syndrome
– References
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
– Mode of action
– Adverse effects
– SNRIs currently available
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancers
Tetracyclic antidepressants
– List of tetracyclic antidepressants
– External links
Tricyclic antidepressants
– Mechanism of action
– Clinical use
– – Depression
– – ADHD
– – Analgesia
– – Nocturnal enuresis
– Side effects
– Interactions
– Overdose
– – Symptoms
– – Toxicity
– – Toxic mechanism
– – Treatment
– – Epidemiology
– Example compounds
– Footnotes
– See also
Anxiolytics
– Types of anxiolytics
– – Benzodiazepines
– – Non-benzodiazepines
– – Herbal treatments
– Alternatives to medication
– References
Cannabis
– Scientific classification
– Species
– Description
– Taxonomy
– – Early classifications
– – 20th Century
– – Ongoing research
– – Popular usage
– Geographical distribution
– – Wild cannabis
– Reproduction
– – Breeding systems
– – Mechanisms of sex determination
– Aspects of cannabis production and use
– Etymology
– References
Cannabis drug
– Ancient history
– Religious and spiritual use
– Medicinal use
– – United States
– New breeding and cultivation techniques
– Preparations for human consumption
– – Smoking
– – Oral consumption
– – Vaporization
– – – Hot-knifing (Blades)
– Immediate effects of consumption
– – Active ingredients, metabolism, and method of activity
– – List of effects
– – – Cognitive effects
– – – Behavioral effects
– – – Physiological effects
– – Lethal dose
– Health issues and the effects of cannabis
– Legality
– – Recent history
– – Decriminalization and legalization
– References
– – Notes
Dissociatives
– Pharmacological classes of dissociatives, and their general subjective effects
– – NMDA receptor antagonists and sigma1 ligands
– – Kappa opioid receptor agonists
– – Inhalants
– – Amanita muscaria constituents
– See also
Hypnotics
Mood stabilizers
– References
Phenethylamines
– Phenethylamine
– Chemistry
– Substituted phenethylamines
– Pharmacology
– References
2C-T-7
– Chemistry
– Pharmacology
– Recreational usage
– Legality
– References
MDEA
Mescaline
– Usage and history
– – Dosage and effects
– Legal status
– Chemistry
– Side effects
– Famous users
– See also
Methylphenidate
– History
– Effects
– – Side effects
– Formulations
– Delivery
– Criticism
– – Similarity to Cocaine
– – Overprescription
– – Addiction
– – Long-term effects
– – Effects on stature
– – Risk of death
– – Potential Carcinogen
– – Illicit use
– See also
– Footnotes
Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants
– Psychedelics
– Dissociatives
– Deliriants
– Etymology and alternative terms
– History of use
– – Traditional religious and shamanic use (entheogens)
– – Early scientific investigations
– – Hallucinogens after World War II
– – Social status of hallucinogens
– – Legal status
– Pharmacology
– Psychedelics and mental illnesses in long-term users
– Pharmacological classes of hallucinogens
– – Psychedelics (serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists)
– – Dissociatives
– – Deliriants (anticholinergics)
– Hallucinogenic plants, fungi, and animals
– – Plants
– – – Psychedelics
– – – – Cacti psychedelics
– – – Quasi-psychedelics
– – – Dissociatives
– – – Deliriants
– – Fungi
– – – Psychedelics
– – – Dissociatives
– – Animals
– – – Psychedelics
– See also
– Notes
Entactogens and Empathogens
– References
– See also
Entheogens
– Terminology and uses of the word
– Use of entheogens
– Entheogen-using cultures
– – Africa
– – Americas
– – Asia
– – Europe
– – Middle East
– – Oceania
– “Entheogen” in the Archaeological Record
– “Entheogen” in Classical mythology and cult
– Christianity
– Entheogens in literature
– References
– End notes
Iboga
– Scientific classification
– Traditional use
– Addiction treatment
– Legal status
– Quotations
Incapacitating agents
– History
– Documented use of incapacitating agents
Psychedelics
– Pharmacological classes of psychedelics, and their general subjective effects
– – Serotonergic psychedelics (serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists)
– – Empathogens and/or entactogens (serotonin releasers)
– – Cannabinoids (CB-1 cannabinoid receptor agonists)
– – Other (psychedelic activity questioned)
– See also
– References
Lysergamides
– Chemistry
– – Lysergic acid amides
– – Peptide alkaloids
– – Clavines
– – Others
– History & Uses
– See also
– References
LSD
– Origins and history
– Dosage
– Effects
– – Pharmacodynamical
– – Physical
– – Psychological
– – – Sensory/perception
– – – Spiritual
– – Physical dangers
– – Flashbacks and HPPD
– – Psychosis
– Chemistry
– – Stability
– Production
– – Forms of LSD
– Legal status
– – United States: Prior to 1967
– – United States: 1970 to the present
– References
– See also
– – Chemical
– – Other
Psychedelic tryptamines
Alphamethyltryptamine
– +- – Methyl-tryptamine
– Chemistry
– Dosage
– Effects
Psilocin
– Properties
– History
– Chemistry
– Pharmacology
– See also
– References
Psilocybin
– Chemistry
– Biology
– Pharmacology
– Medicine
– Toxicity
– Effects
– – Adverse effects
– Social and legal aspects
– See also
– References
Kolokol-1
– Use in the Moscow theatre siege
– Questionable non-lethality
– References
Psychedelia
– See also
Hallucination
– Prevalence and types of hallucinatory experience
– Scientific explanations
– Visual Hallucination Subtypes
– – Hypnagogic Hallucination
– – Peduncular Hallucinosis
– – Delirium Tremens
– – Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body Dementia
– – Migraine Coma
– – Charles Bonnet Syndrome
– – Focal Epilepsy
– Paranormal theories
– See also
– Further reading
– References
Nutmeg
– Scientific classification
– Culinary uses
– Essential oils
– Nutmeg butter
– History
– World production
– Risks and toxicity
– References
Sedatives
– Types of sedatives
– Therapeutic use
– Sedative dependence
– Abuse and overdoses
– Sedatives and alcohol
– Lookalikes
– Sedatives and amnesia
– Sedative drugs and crime
– See also
Imidazopyridine
Stimulants
– Cocaine
– Caffeine
– MDMA
– Nicotine
– Antidepressants
– Other
– See also
Caffeine
– Properties
– Hazards
– Sources
– History of use
– Effects
– – Overuse
– – – Caffeine intoxication
– – – Anxiety and sleep disorders
– Pharmacology
– – Metabolism
– – Mechanism of action
– – Tolerance and withdrawal
– Extraction of pure caffeine
– – Water extraction
– – Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction
– – Extraction by nonhazardous organic solvents
– References
– Appendix
– – Relative content: comparison of different sources
– – Caffeine equivalents
Coffee
– Etymology and history
– Coffee seed types
– Processing and roasting
– Preparation
– Economics of coffee
– Health and pharmacology of coffee
– Social aspects of coffee
– Other uses
– See also
– Notes
– References
Hard and soft drugs
– Hard drugs
– Soft drugs
– Hallucinogens
Psychopharmacology
– History
– Major Drug Classes that are Studied
– – Antipsychotics
– – Antidepressants
– – Mood stabilizers
– – Stimulants
– – Anxiolytics & Hypnotics
– References
Retinoids
– Types
– Structure
– Uses
– Toxicity
– References
Retinol
– General
– Vitamin properties
– Deficiency symptoms
– Excess symptoms
– Common sources
– Discovery
– Chemical structure and function
– – Vision
– – Epithelial Cells
– – Glycoprotein synthesis
– – Immune System
– – Formation of red blood cells (Haematopoiesis)
– – Growth
– Units of measurement
– Nutrition
– – Dietary intake
– – Topical use
– – Vitamin A deficiency
– – Vitamin A overdose (Toxicity)
– – Good sources
– – Night vision
– Closely related chemicals
– Genetically engineered vitamin A enriched rice
– References
Teratogens
– Known teratogens
– References
Uranyl compounds
– Examples
– Minerals
– Chemistry
– Structure
– Health and environmental issues
– Combustion of uranium
– References
Agent Orange
– Description
– Use in South East Asia (1961-1971)
– Effects of the program
– – The New Jersey Agent Orange Commission
– – The National Academy of Science 2003 report
– – New Zealand direct involvement
– Lawsuits
– – US Vietnamese victims class action lawsuit
– – South Korean lawsuit
– Miscellaneous
– Cultural references
– Further reading
– References
– See also
Depleted uranium
– Sources
– History
– – Production and availability
– Military applications
– – Armor plate
– – Ammunition
– – Legal status in weapons
– Civilian applications
– – Trim weights in aircraft
– Uranium hexafluoride
– Health considerations
– – Gulf War syndrome
– Footnotes
Rubella
– ICD-10
– ICD-9
– Rubella virus
– Virus classification
– Symptoms
– Risks
– Prevention and treatment
– Rubella in popular culture
– References
Thalidomide
– History
– – Discovery and introduction
– – Frances Kelsey
– – Tragedy
– Thalidomide today
– – FDA Approval
– – Possible indications
– – Teratogenic mechanism
– – Side effects
– Thalidomide analogs
– Notable children of thalidomide
– Thalidomide in literature, music & arts
– References
– Further reading
Vitamins
– History
– Human vitamins
– – Vitamin name: Chemical name / Solubility / Deficiency disease / Recommended Dietary Allowances (male, age 19–70) / Upper Intake Level (UL/day)
– – Vitamin A
– – Vitamin B1
– – Vitamin B2
– – Vitamin B3
– – Vitamin B5
– – Vitamin B6
– – Vitamin B7
– – Vitamin B9
– – Vitamin B12
– – Vitamin C
– – Vitamin D2–D4
– – Vitamin E
– – Vitamin K
– Vitamins in nutrition and disease
– – Vitamin deficiencies
– – Vitamin side effects and overdose
– The supplement controversy
– – Governmental regulation of vitamin supplements
– Names in current and previous nomenclatures
– See also
– References
B vitamins
– List of B vitamins
– B vitamins deficiency
– Related nutrients
– Health benefits
– Vitamin B sources
– References
Adenine
Vitamin C
– General description
– Vitamin C deficiency
– Daily requirements and dose dependent effects
– – Government agency recommended intake levels
– – Independent dose recommendations
– – Therapeutic applications and doses
– – – Colds
– – – Polio
– – – Viral diseases, and poisons
– – – Lead poisoning
– – – Cancer
– – – Cataracts
– Other effects
– – Contraindications
– – Side-effects
– – Effects of Overdose
– – Alleged harmful effects
– – Conflicts with prescription drugs
– Sources of vitamin C
– – Plant sources
– – Animal sources
– – Food preparation
– – Vitamin C supplements
– – Methods of manufacture (chemical synthesis)
– Discovery and history
– Vitamin C hypothesis
– – Chronic scurvy
– Politics of Vitamin C
– – Regulation
– – Advocacy arguments
– See also
– Sources
– References
– Books
Disclaimers
License
GNU Free Documentation License
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing https://www.telework.ro/e-books/en/health-drugs-disease-prescription-medication/
– Digital: EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-594-8), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-595-5), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-596-2)
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