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About Christmas

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About ChristmasChristmas characters and food, Christmas-linked holidays and music, Santa Claus and traditions. Related to Annunciation, Incarnation; Crucifixion; Advent, the four weeks preceding Christmas; and the period between the day after Thanksgiving and the Sunday after New Year”s Day, the American holiday season.

Christmas or Christmas Day is a holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity. Aspects of celebration may include gift-giving, Christmas trees, display of Nativity sets, church attendance, the Father Christmas/Santa Claus myth, and family gatherings. Users of the Gregorian calendar observe the holiday on December 25. Some Eastern Orthodox Churches celebrate on December 25 by the Julian calendar, which currently corresponds to January 7 on the Gregorian calendar. These dates are merely traditional; the great majority of scholars agree that the actual birthdate of Jesus is unknown. In Western culture, the holiday is characterized by the exchange of gifts among friends and family members, some of the gifts being attributed to Santa Claus (also known as Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Saint Basil and Father Frost). However, various local and regional Christmas traditions are still practiced, despite the widespread influence of American, British and Australian Christmas motifs disseminated by film, popular literature, television, and other media.

CONTENTS:

Christmas
– Contents
– History
– – Origin of holiday
– – Medieval Christmas and related winter festivals
– – The Reformation and modern times
– The Nativity
– Other dates of celebration
– Regional customs and celebrations
– – Santa Claus and other bringers of gifts
– – – Timing of gifts
– – Declaration of Christmas Peace
– – Decorations
– – Social aspects and entertainment
– – Christmas carol media
– Christmas in the arts and media
– Economics of Christmas
– See also
– References
Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004
Christmas Seal
Christmas creep
Christmas in the media
– Christmas movies and videos
– Television and Christmas
– Christmas on the radio
Christmas season
– See also
Festive ecology
– Contents
– Christmas
– Dressing the Arbor Tree, Aston-on-Clun, Shropshire, England
– References
– Further reading
Happy Holiday(s)
Nativity Fast
Nine Lessons and Carols
– Contents
– King’s College, Cambridge
– Order of Service
– External link
Noel
– See also
– References
SantaCon
– Contents
– Santarchy around the world
– Santarchy and the law
– In popular culture
Secret Santa
– A typical Secret Santa
– Variation: Thieving Secret Santa
– References in popular culture
Secularization of Christmas
– Contents
– Incorporating secular or pagan elements into Christmas
– – Protestantism
– – 19th century
– – Early 20th century
– Claims of Christmas censorship
– – Contemporary United States
– See also
– Organizations
– References
– Notes
White Christmas
Xmas
Christmas characters
Santa Claus
– Contents
– Overview
– Historical origins
– Santa Claus in popular culture
– – Santa Claus rituals
– – Ho, ho, ho
– – Santa Claus reindeers’ name
– – Santa Claus on film
– Christian opposition to Santa Claus
– See also
– References
Origins of Santa Claus
– Contents
– – Ancient Christian origins
– – Germanic folklore
– – Modern origins
– – American origins
– – Other possible origins
– See also
Santa Claus rituals
– Contents
– – Christmas Eve rituals
– – Letter writing
– – Websites and e-mail
– – Songs
– – “Santa Claus” in shopping malls
Santa Claus on film
– Contents
– – Origins in film
– – Questioning and believing
– – Santa as a hero
– – Succession of Santas
– – Impostor Santas
Christmas gift-bringers around the world
– Contents
– Christmas gift-bringers around the world
– – Europe and North America
– – Latin America
– – East Asia
– – Central Asia
– – Africa and the Middle East
– – Oceania
Biblical Magi
– Contents
– The nature of the magi
– – Names
– – Tombs
– The gifts of the magi
– Herod
– The birthplace
– – The star of Bethlehem
– – The Bethlehem prophecy
– Religious significance
– – Traditions of the Epiphany
– The Magi depicted in art
– See also
– Cultural References
– References
Caganer
Christkind
– See also
Companions of Saint Nicholas
– Contents
– Appearance
– Tales
– Traditions
– Historical accounts
– Modern perspective
– Controversy
– References
– Literature
Ded Moroz
– Contents
– History
– Regional differences
– – ex-USSR
– – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro
– – Slovenia
– – Poland
– – Germany
– – Tatar
– See also
– References
Dzied Maroz
– See also
Elf
– Contents
– Characteristics of Traditional Elves
– – Elves in Norse mythology
– – Scandinavian elves
– – German elves
– – English elves
– Modern elves
– – Elves at Christmas
– – Elves in modern fantasy
– – Elves in psychedelic experience
– References
– See also
Father Christmas
– References
– See also
Joulupukki
– Trivia
– Joulupukki’s Dark Side?
– See also
Julemanden
Kris Kringle
– Related uses
La Befana
Mos Gerila
– References
Mr. Bingle
– History
– Mr. Bingle in Tennessee
Mrs. Claus
– Contents
– Origin of Mrs. Claus
– Depictions in popular media
– – Movies
– – Television
– See also
Saint Nicholas
– Contents
– Nicholas the clergyman
– – Bishop Nicholas at the First Ecumenical Council
– – Abduction of his relics
– The face of the historical saint
– Deeds and miracles attributed to Saint Nicholas
– Formal veneration of the saint
– In iconography
– Saint Nicholas the festive gift-giver
– – Celebration in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary and Luxembourg
– – Celebration in the Netherlands
– – Celebration in Belgium
– – Celebration in France
– – Celebration in Portugal
– – Benjamin Britten cantata
– Metamorphosis in Demre
– See also
Olentzero
– Appearance
Pere Noel
Santa Claus’ reindeer
– Contents
– Origins
– The reindeer
– – Original eight
– – – Sleigh order
– – – Descriptions
– – – Meaning of names
– – Additional reindeer since the writing of the poem
– – – Rudolph (the red-nosed reindeer)
– – – Robbie (Rudolph’s son)
– – – Olive, the Other Reindeer
– See also
– References
Tio de Nadal
– See also
Tomte
– Contents
– Appearance
– Temperament
– The heathen tomte
– Similar folklore
– The modern tomte
– See also
– References
– External link
Yule Goat
– See also
Yule Lads
Christmas movie
– List of Christmas movies
– Movies set during the Christmas season
Christmas television special
– American television
– British television
– Examples of American Christmas television specials
Christmas food
– Contents
– Belgium
– Canada
– Czech Republic
– Denmark
– Finland
– France
– Germany
– Italy
– Japan
– Lithuania
– New Zealand
– Norway
– Poland
– Serbia
– Spain
– Sweden
– United Kingdom
– United States
– Venezuela
Bebinca
– External link
Bethmannchen
Brandy butter
– Description
– Trivia
Bredela
Buche de Noel
Bunuelo
Bunuelos
Candy cane
– Urban legends about the origin of candy canes
– Other uses
Cesnica
Christmas cake
– Christmas cake in other countries
– References
Christmas cookies
– See also
Christmas ham
Christmas pudding
– Contents
– Basics
– The wish and other traditions
– After Christmas
– See also
Cranberry sauce
– Cranberry Trivia
Eggnog
Folar
Fritule
Fruitcake
– Contents
– History
– Fruitcake in popular culture
– See also
Ganzeltopf
Gingerbread
Glogg
Hallaca
– Contents
– Origins
– Tradition
– Preparation
– Culture
– Notes
Joulupoyta
Julmust
Kalach
– Ukrainian tradition
Knack
– Recipe
Kutia
– General recipe
Lebkuchen
Lefse
Lutefisk
– Contents
– General
– – Preparation
– – Cooking
– – Eating
– Origin
– – Inception
– – Traces in literature
– Misconception of Norwegians and lutefisk
– Lutefisk humor
– Other
– Spellings
– Notes
Marzipan
– Contents
– Recipe
– History
– Etymology
– Trivia
Mince pie
– Contents
– Description
– History
– Folklore and Traditions
– Variations
– Trivia
– References
– Notes
Mincemeat tart
Mulled wine
– See also
Oplatek
Pandoro
– History
Panettone
– Contents
– Origins
– Panettone leaves Italy
Pfeffernusse
Pinnekjott
Pio Quinto
Portuguese sweet bread
– See also
Queso de bola
– See also
Reveillon
– Food
– Differences
Rice pudding
– Types of Rice Pudding
– – East Asia
– – South Asia
– – Middle East
– – Europe
– – Latin America
– – North America
– History
– Rice pudding in folklore
– Rice pudding in literature
Romeritos
Rum ball
– Recipe
Rumtopf
Smalahove
– How to eat smalahove
Sorpotel
Spritzgeback
Stollen
– Contents
– History
– Stollen today
– See also
Sugar plum
– The Sugar Plum Tree
– References
Szaloncukor
Tamale
– Contents
– Tamales in Latin America
– Tamales in the United States
– Tamales in the Caribbean
Tourtiere
– Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
Trifle
Turron
Twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper
Vanillekipferl
Wassail
– Contents
– History
– Recipes
– Other uses and similarities
Yule log
Christmas-linked holidays
Black Friday
– Contents
– Origin
– Response (Buy Nothing Day)
– Workers
– Controversy
– See also
Boxing Day
– Contents
– Origins
– Commonwealth observance
– European observance
– Canadian observance
– Trivia
– References
Boxing Week
Chrismahanukwanzakah
– See also
Chrismukkah
– See also
Christmas Eve
– Declaration of Christmas Peace
– See also
Christmas Sunday
Distaff day
Epiphany
– Contents
– Epiphany in different Christian rites
– – Western Christian Churches (Old World)
– – Western Christian Churches Spain and Ibero-America
– – Eastern Christian Churches
– See also
Handsel Monday
Hogmanay
– Contents
– Origins
– Customs
– Presbyterian Influence
– Ne’erday
– Handsel Day
– Etymology
– References
HumanLight
Night of the Radishes
Posadas
– Contents
– Meaning
– Ritual
– Mexico
Purification of the Virgin
– Contents
– Date
– History
– Relation to non-Christian celebrations
– Traditions and superstitions
– References
Sol Invictus
– Contents
– Elagabalus
– Aurelian
– Constantine
– Sol Invictus and Christianity
– Notes
St. Stephen’s Day
– Contents
– Around the world
– – Ireland
– – Catalonia
– – Republika Srpska
– See also
Twelfth Night
– Contents
– Origins and history
– Traditions
– Influence on Literature
– Modern Esotericism
– See also
– References
Twelve Days of Christmas
– Contents
– Festival
– Christmas carol
– – Structure and lyrics
– – Symbolic interpretation
– – Standard variations
– – Parodies
– – Cost
– References
Twelve Holy Days
– See also
– References
Winterval
– Contents
– Birmingham controversy
– [edit] See also
Christmas music
– Contents
– List of Christmas songs
– – General Christmas songs
– – Best known by one particular artist
– – Not intended as a Christmas song
– Christmas albums
– – Christmas songs introduced in movies and other popular media
– French language Christmas songs
– German language Christmas songs
– Occitan language Christmas songs
– Swedish language Christmas songs
Christmas carol
– Media
– See also
List of Christmas carols
– Well known carols
– Popular Christmas songs that are not considered carols
Charity record
Christmas traditions
Advent calendar
– See also
Advent wreath
American Christmas traditions
– Contents
– Introduction
– Traditions
– – Christmas tree
– – Santa Claus
– – Nativity scene
– – Christmas card
– – Christmas carol
– – Christmas gift
– – Christmas lights
– – Television and movies
– See also
Ashen faggot
– See also
Christmas Bird Count
– Contents
– History
– Methods
– Participation
Bracebridge dinner
Bubble light
– Patents
Christmas card
– Contents
– History
– The Christmas card list
– Christmas letters
– Variants on the concept
– Charity
Carols by Candlelight
– Contents
– History
– Events
– Broadcast
Christmas cracker
– History
Christmas customs in Poland
– See also
Christmas customs in Romania
– See also
Christmas customs in the Philippines
– Contents
– Misa de Gallo (Dec. 16-24)
– Christmas Eve
– Christmas Day
– Niños Inocentes
– New Year’s Eve (Dec. 31)
– Three Kings (First Sunday of the year)
– Decorations
– – Parol
– – Belen
– Caroling
Christmas dinner
– Contents
– Christmas dinner around the world
– – Australia
– – Austria
– – Canada
– – Eastern Europe
– – Germany
– – Mexico
– – United Kingdom
– – United States
– References
Christmas tree
– Contents
– Dates
– Types of trees used
– – Natural trees
– – Artificial trees
– – – Feather trees
– – – Modern trees
– – – Designer trees
– – – Outdoor trees
– – – Other gimmicks
– – – Environmental issues
– Decoration and ornaments
– – Tree mats and skirts
– – Flocking
– History
– – Name controversy
– – Usage controversy
– See also
Christmas worldwide
– Contents
– Asia
– – India
– – Korea
– – Japan
– – People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, and Macao
– – Philippines
– – Republic of China (Taiwan)
– The Americas
– – Mexico
– – United States and Canada
– – South America
– Australia
– Europe
– – Central Europe
– – – Czech Republic
– – – Poland
– – – Slovakia
– – Eastern Europe
– – – Romania
– – – Russia
– – Northern Europe
– – – German-speaking areas of Europe
– – – Germany
– – – The Netherlands and Belgium
– – – Sweden
– – – Norway
– – – Finland
– – Southern Europe
– – Ireland
– – The UK
– Africa
– – Nigeria
– See also
Christmastime greetings
– Contents
– History
– – Merry / Happy Christmas
– References
– See also
Festival of Trees
Garland
German Christmas traditions
– Contents
– Introduction
– Tannenbaum
– St. Nicholas
– Food and drink
– Three Magi
– See also
Grand Illumination
– Trivia
– See also
Hanukkah bush
– Notes
Holiday Trail of Lights
Hollywood Christmas Parade
– History
– Grand Marshals
– Sources
Koleda
– See also
Koledari
Kucios
Christmas lights
– Contents
– History
– Types
– Sizes
– Sets
– Ornamentation
– Safety
– Outdoor displays
– Light sculptures
– Other holidays
– Trivia
Christmas Market
– See also
National Christmas Tree
– See also
Nativity scene
Nutcracker
– Decorative
– Functional
Christmas ornament
– Notes
– See also
Pagan beliefs surrounding Christmas
– Contents
– Jesus’ birth
– – Why do people celebrate Jesus’ birth on December 25?
– Traditions
– – Kissing under mistletoe
– – The Christmas tree
– – Yule log
– Bibliography
Pasterka
Christmas pickle
Pumpkin pie
Rich’s Great Tree
– See also
Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree
– See also
Royal Christmas Message
– Contents
– History
– Messages by year
– – The 1995 Christmas Message (BBC)
– – The 1996 Christmas Message (BBC)
– – The 1997 Christmas Message (ITN)
– – The 2001 Christmas Message (ITN)
– – The 2003 Christmas Message (ITN)
– – The 2004 Christmas Message (BBC)
– – – Reaction
– – The 2005 Christmas Message (ITN)
– Alternative Christmas message
– – List of Alternative Message Presenters
– – 2004 Alternative Message
– – 2005 Alternative Message
– Elsewhere
Santa Claus parade
– History
– Notable parades
– See also
Santa’s Grotto
Santon
Christmas stamp
– Contents
– History
– Designs
– Usage
– Collecting
– Other holiday stamps
– References
Christmas stocking
Striezelmarkt
– Contents
– – Features of today’s Striezelmarkt
– – Wooden Ornaments
– – Food and drink
Toronto Santa Claus Parade
Tree topper
Christmas village
Wassailing
– The Traditional Wassail Ceremony
Wigilia
License
GNU Free Documentation License
– GNU Free Documentation License
Index
– Christmas
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/christmas/
– Digital: EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-585-6), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-586-3), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-587-0)
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