The Evolution of Currency

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Money in various forms, from bartering to modern financial tools, has been an important institution for organized societies from the earliest times. History provides examples with many alternatives of the role of money that offer insights on today’s economic issues. … Read More

Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism and Deontology

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The two-level utilitarianism developed by Hare is based on the recognition of the artificial nature of the dichotomy between deontologism and consequentialism. Very general moral rules, such as the no-harm rule, are most of the time useful and sufficient to … Read More

Role of translation and languages ​​in the circulation of ideas and information

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In space and time, the intensity of intercultural communication and interlinguistic exchanges depends largely on the quantity and quality of information translated from one language into another, but history has shown that the circulation and “notoriety” of ideas are not … Read More

Different versions of utilitarianism

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The utilitarian calculus One of the important feature of utilitarianism is its pragmatism. The morality of an act is “calculated” on the basis of its effects, not the motives behind it. This calculation takes into account the consequences of the … Read More

Solids

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The solid state is a state of matter characterized by the absence of freedom between molecules or ions (metals for example). The macroscopic criteria of matter in the solid state are: the solid has its own form; the solid has … Read More

Problem of Evil

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In philosophy, more specifically in theology, the problem of evil is the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with that of an omniscient, omnipotent and good God. We can distinguish two forms of the problem of evil: … Read More

Logicism

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Logicism is an attitude towards mathematics according to which it is an extension of logic and therefore all mathematical concepts and theories are reducible to logic. If this program were feasible, it could support logical positivism in particular, and reductionism … Read More

Criticism of translation

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Marc Bloch made the following criticism in The Historian’s Craft: ”It would still be annoying to see historians encumbering their observations with foreign expressions like those authors of rustic novels who, by their use of provincialisms, slip into a jargon … Read More

Ancient philosophy

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(Marble bust of Roman origin (1st century BC) representing Socrates, copy of a lost bronze (by Lysippus).) The term ancient philosophy generally designates the philosophy that was born in the 7th century BC, and which developed with Socrates and Plato, … Read More

Nominalism

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Nominalism is a philosophical doctrine which considers that concepts are human constructions and that the names which relate to them are only conventions of language. Beings are not intrinsically carriers of the concepts by which we apprehend them. For example, … Read More

Theoretical philosophy

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Logic Logic is not concerned with concrete content, but with the laws of consistency. She asks, based on which rules out certain conditions specific ( “premises”) result or can not be drawn conclusions. To that extent, it addresses the basis of all argument- based science. In earlier … Read More

Historical authenticity in performance (Historically informed performance)

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The expression historically informed performance (HIP) designates a musical interpretation movement developed in the 20th century and more particularly during the second half of the 20th century. Seeking to get closer to the musical tastes of the time and the … Read More

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