Translation studies, as a science, is studying cognitive processes and language processes involved in oral or written reproduction (translation) or gestures towards a language, the expression of an idea from another language (vocal signs (speech), graphics (writing) or sign language). When this work is not about texts, is also known as “intersemiotic transposition” or “transmutation” (Jakobson).
Brian Harris of the University of Montreal gave a simple definition in 1973; it is for him any reference to the linguistic analysis of the translation phenomenon.
In a broader sense, any reflective practice on translation is translation studies.
It is also an academic exercise part of the programs of the faculties of foreign languages, but usually from the third year of study, at least in France, and in the upper PhD degree in several countries.
Translation studies has received several ephemeral names such as “translation sciences”, “translatology” etc.
Theories of translation – Interpretive theory
The interpretive theory, or “School of Paris” now has many promoters, especially in the Francophone world. It was developed in the ESIT in Paris, mainly through Danica Seleskovitch and Marianne Lederer. Seleskovitch was inspired by his experience as a conference interpreter for developing a translation model in three steps: interpretation, deverbalisation, re-expression. It focuses here particularly to the question of “meaning,” considered “non-verbal” kind: it concerns both explicit (what the speaker said) and implicit (which fell silent). A very important “cognitive baggage” (knowledge of the world, the context, “wanting to say” of the author) must be owned by the translator to grasp this. The issue of “perception” is predominant here: perception of language tool (internal) and reality (external). The translation process is going on here an intermediate step, that of deverbalisation. It is a dynamic process of understanding and re-expression of ideas.
Jean Delisle has subsequently been evolved the idea of interpretive theory by using discourse analysis and text linguistics.