The translation process may be stated as:
- Decoding the meaning of the source text; and
- Re-encoding this meaning in the target language.
Behind this ostensibly simple procedure lies a complex cognitive operation. To decode the meaning of the source text in its entirety, the translator must interpret and analyse all the features of the text, a process that requires in-depth knowledge of the grammar, semantics, syntax, idioms, etc., of the source language, as well as the culture of its speakers. The translator needs the same in-depth knowledge to re-encode the meaning in the target language.
Therein lies the challenge in machine translation: how to program a computer that will “understand” a text as a person does, and that will “create” a new text in the target language that “sounds” as if it has been written by a person.
This problem may be approached in a number of ways.